kredyt mieszkaniowy z umową na czas określony bezzwrotne pożyczki dla małych firm ślimak pożyczki opinie kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej millenium kredyt bank świecie kredyt bank sa ciechanów pożyczki prywatne pod weksel poznań pożyczki kredyty bez historii kredyt bank knf pożyczki pozabankowe w śremie uzasadnienie pożyczki banknot pożyczki opinie pożyczki oszuści kredyt za 5 zł w orange kredyt bankowy chomikuj kredyt bank w bzwbk bocian pożyczki provident pożyczki od rodziny znajomych kredyt bank legnica powstańców śląskich pożyczki społecznościowe spłacalność kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw domu kredyt samochodowy dla firm oprocentowanie spłata pożyczki przychód pożyczki świebodzice objawy pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny a rozwód kredyt bez bik 10 000 kredyt chwilówka na dowód warszawa kredyt gotówkowy w pekao sa opinie większe pożyczki bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku kredyt bank w kolobrzegu pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik łódź umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a podatek współpraca pożyczki bez bik pożyczki błyskawiczne pożyczki od osób prywatnych kielce alibaba szybkie pożyczki szybki kredyt bez bik pożyczki do domu płock kredyt mieszkaniowy starego portfela pożyczki w domu klienta warszawa kredyty pozabankowe dla zadluzonych pożyczki dla przedsiębiorstw kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej ing pożyczki bez krd olsztyn pożyczki w średniowieczu pożyczka bez dochodu i komornikiem na reke santander consumer bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator gdzie po kredyt bez bik forum kredyt bank zajęcia kredyt konsolidacyjny 70000 flisak chełmno pożyczki kredyt w bank pko sa kredyt bank złotoryja kredyty chwilówki gdańsk kredyt bank aktywacja tokena kredyt bank oferty pracy odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z funduszu socjalnego pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno kredyt bank praca opinie kredyt bank grodzka pożyczki do domu oława umowy pożyczki po angielsku kredyt w banku dla studenta kredyt bank ubezpieczenie mieszkania umowa pożyczki między rodzicami a dziećmi pożyczki chwilówki lubin łatwe kredyty poznan wyłudzenie pożyczki provident kredyt w banku bph prowident krakow pozyczk umowa pożyczki opodatkowana vat kredyt bank godziny otwarcia marki szybki pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt 3000 bez biku pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno kredyty chwilówki w łodzi odsetki od pożyczki cit kredyt bez bik i krd na samochod kredyt bank wrocław powstańców śląskich kredyt pozabankowy prywatny kredyt bank bydgoszcz godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej podatek na jaki numer wysłać kredyt w orange umorzenie pożyczki a vat kredyt studencki pko kontakt kredyt bank warszawa ul ostrobramska 101 czy umowa pożyczki musi być sporządzona na piśmie ekspresowe pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator rat alior bank kredyt odnawialny oprocentowanie kredyt bank zielona góra wojska polskiego umowa pożyczki w euro przedłużenie pożyczki w vivus stanisław świder pożyczki pozyczki w domu klienta na dowód warszawa kredyty bez bik z komornikiem rybnik pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód poznań kredyt chwilówki kluczbork kredyty bez bik toruń kalkulator kredytowy kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp odsetki karne w pożyczkach kiedy nota kredyt bank limit dzienny kredyt bank ekstrakonto vip pożyczki konsolidacyjne pozyczki mikrokasa opinie pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem gliwice kredyt pozabankowy na auto pożyczki chwilówki głogów kredyt bank oświadczenie inwestora pożyczki międzyrzecz kredyty chwilówki windykacja praca kredyty chwilówki jana pawła warszawa kredyt bank aukcje banknot pozyczki pożyczki na dowod bez sprawdzaniaw olesnie umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną bank bph da kredyt jak mam komornika kredyt bank oława wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia kalkulator kredytowy jelenia góra banki kredyt na sam dowód miosk maz bez sprawdzania krd kredyt bank nfc kredyt z komornikiem bez opłat kredyt z komornikiem prywatny kredyty bez bik dla emerytów kredyt bank opłata za monit kredyt bank malopolska poszukuję pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki od brata pożyczki pod zastaw lombard tarnów forta pożyczki łódź kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator zdolności kredytowej bank pko pozyczka na dowod pożyczki społecznościowe w domu pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem deutsche bank kredyt opinie 2013 pożyczki pożyczka pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt konsolidacyjny do 10 lat pożyczki pod zastaw biała podlaska kredyty konsolidacyjne w bs bank zachodni wbk sa kredyt studencki kredyt konsolidacyjny online kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę karty kredytowej do ilu kredyt santander pożyczki dla bezrobotnych z pup pożyczki kruk kredyt bank grójecka chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula przeniesienie pożyczki kredyt dla mundurowych w banku pocztowym pożyczki prywatne bolesławiec umowa pożyczki pod zastaw prawo pożyczki płock bez bik kredyt na dowod od reki pożyczki bez poręczycieli bez bik umorzenie pożyczki z zfss pożyczki chwilówki lublin kredyt bank niepodległości poznań kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów za darmo kredyt bez bik przez internet ostatni przelew w kredyt banku kredyty bez bik walbrzych kredyty bez bik bytom kredyt mieszkaniowy zarobki za granica umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego a podatek kredyty chwilówki bez bik i krd online kredyt bez bik i krd bedzin kredyt konsolidacyjny w citibank kredyty chwilówki bitwy warszawskiej kredyty chwilowki klobuck kredyt bank lubartów telefon niezgłoszenie pożyczki w terminie pożyczki oddłużeniowe łódź promesa udzielenia pożyczki druk zwrotu pożyczki kredyty samochodowe ing bocian pożyczki skargi kredyt mieszkaniowy w kb opinie pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking szybkie pożyczki ostrołęka kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach bez prowizji kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd przez internet kredyt bank na pradze ulica adres jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange one w którym banku kredyt rodzina na swoim pożyczki bilateralne pożyczki chwilówki nowy sącz księgowanie pożyczki od kontrahenta pszczółka kredyt inowrocław pożyczki dla ludzi z komornikiem kredyt bank iphone umowa pożyczki dla członka zarządu podatek od pożyczki czynny żal kredyty chwilówki lębork kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól pożyczki cieszyn pożyczki bez oprocentowania pożyczki online 15 min kredyt mieszkaniowy zasady przyznawania pożyczki chwilówki bez bik nowy sącz kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli rodzina na swoim kredyt bank awaria systemu pożyczki bez bik tomaszów mazowiecki kredyt bank włochy zmiana wysokości oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt w banku pocztowym kalkulator pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe kredyt konsolidacyjny warszawa abil pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki rumia pożyczki prywatne gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny dla kogo w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy 2013 wizja lokalna w kredyt banku pożyczki gotówkowe bydgoszcz kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank pożyczki pozabankowe dla malych firm kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd ubezpieczenie kredytu konsolidacyjnego w alior banku pożyczki przez internet za darmo pożyczka bez bik na samochód pożyczki konsolidacyjne pko odsetki od pożyczki pkwiu umowa pożyczki poświadczona notarialnie umorzenie pożyczki wspólnika kredyt bank profil aktywny jakie jest oprocentowanie w stefczyku pozyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe o co pytać pożyczka na spłatę komornika banki kredyty chwilówki roznoszenie ulotek umowa pożyczki na zakup towaru wzór bocian pożyczki kalkulator rat pan kowalski zaciągnął kredyt w banku kredyt bank lublin oferty pracy optima pożyczki oddziały zatrudnienie kredyt bank 2012 pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz kredyt bank warszawa centralna jak wziasc kredyt w orange na 5 zł jak wziasc kredyt w orange 5 zl kredyt bank białołęka bocian pożyczki dla kogo bartek pożyczki spłata pożyczki tłumaczenie kredyt bez biku na dowód pozyczki dojazd do domu wloclawek pożyczki bez bik i krd pozabankowe restrukturyzacja pożyczki w skok stefczyka kredyty chwilówki przez internet bez bik kredyt mieszkaniowy oferty banków kredyt bank iban pożyczki bez bik brzeg potwierdzenie salda pożyczki pożyczki oleśnica kredyt bez biku siedlce kredyt mieszkaniowy harmonogram spłat eurocash pożyczki opinie umowa pożyczki druk pcc umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki skutki podatkowe pożyczki pozabankowe grójec kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singla kalkulator alior bank kredyt gotówkowy dokumenty kredyt bank rachunek pożyczki gotówkowe w 15 minut pożyczki gotówkowe lodz kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat alior bank ekspresowe pożyczki wrocław bez big bik i krd ulotki kredyty chwilówki w słupsku kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea bank kredyt bank wniosek kredytowy kredyty bankowe ekonomia kredyt samochodowy bre bank kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na zastępstwo kredyt bez bik 10000 warunki kredytu samochodowego getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny multibank kalkulator kredyt bank radom godziny otwarcia prywatne pożyczki w lublinie kredyt bank ruda śląska alior bank kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego kredyt odnawialny w millenium bank kredyt studencki pko odroczenie spłaty kredyt w postbank kredyt bank w augustowie kredyt studencki banki udzielające kredyt bank cashback kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie bank bgż pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości maksymalne koszty pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bank zachodni pożyczki chwilówki bez bik gdańsk pożyczki bez historii kredytowej kredyt samochodowy paribas bank wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez pożyczkodawcę kredyt bank altus kredyty bez bik i krd szczecin pożyczki pozabankowe ostrołęka pożyczki chwilówki ostróda pożyczki pod zastaw zgierz kredyty mieszkaniowe porównanie banków pożyczki konsolidacyjne kredyt bank bytom godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik zamość kredyt bank tyszowce godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilowki zary kredyt studencki w banku pko bp pozyczka z bociana dla kogo pożyczki londyn w którym banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki bez bik i krd jelenia góra kredyt w barclays przez internet pozyczki chwilowki bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach grojec kredyt bank lubaczów czy sygma bank udziela pozyczek kredyt bank warszawa al ken kredyt bankowy jako forma finansowania wniosek o kredyt bankowy wzór firmy kredytowe w szamotulach kredyt bank gdańsk słowackiego kredyt konsolidacyjny na 30 lat kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana 39 pomocne pożyczki opinie pożyczki na świeta pożyczki 100 online pożyczki pod zastaw oświęcim kredyt bank lublin narutowicza kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw sulejówek umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z wekslem kredyt bez bik i krd katowice kredyt mieszkaniowy credit agricole forum pozyczki pozabankowe ostroda bez sprawdzania baz danych kredyty chwilówki łaziska górne koszty pożyczki provident pożyczki od zaraz jacek cybulski pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki sopot kredyt bankowy z komornikiem pożyczki pod zastaw chojnice kredyt bank wyzwolenia db kredyt bez biku pożyczki bez bik gdynia przedawnienie pożyczki w providencie kredyt lloyds uk 2014 pozyczki pod zastaw w uk kredyty banku pko sa pożyczki na dowód krosno pożyczki bez biku na dowód kredyt bank i oddział warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy w zagranicznym banku pożyczki z komornikiem śląskie kredyty pozabankowe gdynia kredyt bank csr pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko bp kredyt bank zana lublin godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny przykład eurobank pożyczki opinie prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy wzór najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny szybki kredyt bez bik gorzów wlkp umorzenie udzielonej pożyczki szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe online kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej pko sa pożycze prywatnie bez przedpłat kredyt bank sa zagiel lublin kredyt w banku a komornik kredyt bank wojska polskiego zielona góra szybkie pożyczki dla firm bez bik porównanie kredytów mieszkaniowych maj 2013 pożyczka przez internet pozabankowa bełchatów umowa pożyczki na konto kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najłatwiej kredyt bank demo kb24 chwilówki lublin pożyczki lublin chwilówki lubelskie kredyt bank żory kredyt bank w przeworsku godziny otwarcia udzielę prywatnej pożyczki rzeszów prado pożyczki katowice kredyt bez bik big kredyty chwilówki sochaczew w jakim banku wziąc kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki świecie pożyczki prywatne podatek kredyt bank kasprzaka 2 pożyczki dla bezrobotnych pup kredyty mieszkaniowe symulacja kredyt bez bik na zakup mieszkania alior bank kredyt na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyty mieszkaniowe singiel na swoim bocian pożyczki pruszcz gdański kredyt pozabankowy warszawa bocian pożyczki opinia kredyty bez bik jaworzno kredyt w banku bocian pożyczki włocławek kredyt mieszkaniowy w ktorym banku kredyt bank łódź bednarska bocian pożyczki łódź kredyt bank międzyzdroje tel pozyczka na telefon wrzesnia okolice kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku bezzwrotne pożyczki dla rolników kredyt bank w nowym targu kredyt preferencyjny alior bank kredyt dla firmy bez bik kredyty chwilówki radomsko oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki wzór pożyczki dla jst www kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bez bik swidnica kredyt bank notowania funduszy inwestycyjnych kredyt pozyczka bez biku udzielę pożyczki prywatnej 2013 kredyt w banku a śmierć kredytobiorcy kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego pko sa w jakim banku wziasc kredyt na dom pożyczki pozabankowe bartoszyce kredyty chwilówki jak działają kredyty bez bik jaworzno kredyt samochodowy w banku bph kredyt studencki opinie forum kredyt bank ostrów wlkp umowa pożyczki ojciec syn wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy na firmę ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing kredyt bez biku tychy kredyt bank oszczędnościowe pszczółka pożyczki opinie essentialia negotii pożyczki kredyt bez biku bez zaświadczeń bocian pozyczki dla zadluzonych umowa pożyczki pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi wzór tanie pożyczki konsumpcyjne kredyt bank gdańsk grunwaldzka kredyt bank liczba pracowników pożyczki gotówkowe przez internet bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy oprocentowanie kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator rat oprocentowanie efektywne pożyczki kredyt bez biku forum kredyt bez bik 5000 wrocław kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń pożyczki na dowód krosno kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl marża banku kredyt w euro kredyt bank sa centrala w warszawie pożyczki daiglob finance kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator kredytowy udzielenie pożyczki z budżetu gminy pozyczki dla pracujacych z komornikiem kredyt pozabankowy gdansk umowa pożyczki 2013 oddanie pożyczki kredyt bank szczecinek kontakt pozyczki online przez poczte pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bik i krd kredyt samochodowy który bank w jakim banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bez bankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik z komornikiem odsetki od pożyczki nota czy faktura kredyty chwilówki co sądzicie spółka udziela pożyczki prezesowi pożyczki dla nauczycieli pożyczki konsolidacyjne pko kredyt bez bik do 50 000 kredyty bez bik kalkulator kredyt bank otwock karczewska wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki kodeks cywilny kredyt konsolidacyjny pozabankowy prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe białystok przywłaszczenie pożyczki pożyczki na dowód świebodzin alior bank kredyt dla seniora umowa pożyczki od udziałowca zagranicznego kredyt bank hel umowa pożyczki pieniędzy koledze cesja pożyczki podatek dochodowy pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kredyt bank jana pawła warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe siedlce kredyt bank limit kredytowy pożyczki chwilówki promocje szybka pożyczka bez erif pożyczki bez biku wałbrzych santander kredyt ratalny a bik santander consumer bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki pozabankowe z bikiem eurocash pożyczki poznań pożyczki citibank kredyt bank starachowice kontakt kredyt bank ul żytnia kredyt bank w borku wlkp

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad