pożyczki gotówkowe żary umowa pożyczki na wykup mieszkania kredyt bez bik do 150 tys pożyczki gotówkowe skok stefczyka pożyczki krecik opinie kredyt bank międzychód kredyty chwilówki z komornikiem cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm pożyczki umowa kredyt na start dla firm bez bik symulacja kredytu w banku wbk pożyczki bez bik big i krd online najszybsze pożyczki online placówki kredyt banku poznań optima pożyczki leszno wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki przez pożyczkodawcę kredyt mieszkaniowy przy niskich zarobkach w jakim banku kredyt konsumencki kredyty chwilówki starogard gd prestiż pożyczki kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank pocztowy pożyczki dla msp pozyczka chwilowka od reki szybkie pozyczki zlotoryja bez bik czy kredyt w banku ulega przedawnieniu pożyczki społecznościowe prawo kredyt bank w świeciu mikropożyczki z ue kredyty pozabankowe sochaczew kredyt bank routing number odsetki od pożyczki otrzymanej od udziałowca kredyt bank kolbuszowa kredyty chwilówka żywiec pozyczki online przez poczte umowa pożyczki pod warunkiem kredyt bez bik do domu pożyczki prywatne krosno pożyczki pozabankowe świętokrzyskie prolongata pożyczki pekao sa pożyczki bez bik kutno pożyczki olsztyn bez bik pożyczki bez bik poznań w jakim banku w swarzędzu dostane pozyczke z pit abis pożyczki pozyczki chojnice skarbiec pożyczki dla zadłużonych plock kredyty bez bik opinie kredyt dla emeryta w banku pocztowym el global pożyczki kredyty na sam dowód pozabankowe racibórz kredyt bank prezes pożyczki na dowód jarocin pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd optima pożyczki toruń bocian pożyczki bez bik pozyczki pozabankowe okolice boleslawiec kredyty bez bik skok kredyty chwilówki poznań praca kredyty chwilówki opinia o firmie umowa pożyczki o czym pamiętać kredyt bez bik do 100 000 pożyczki w domu gdynia wzór umowy pożyczki provident karencja w spłacie pożyczki co to jest pożyczki chwilówki bez bik olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator skok stefczyka pożyczki pozabankowe opole umowa pożyczki co to jest warunkowa umowa pożyczki kredyty na oświadczenie bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe 2000 pożyczki w wałbrzychu pożyczki chwilówki za darmo kredyt samochodowy w idea banku umorzenie pożyczki w wpf pożyczki prywatne przemyśl kredyt w deutsche bank opinie pożyczki na dowód w 15 minut kredyt bank warszawa książkowa godziny otwarcia szybki kredytyt gotwkowe przez internet bez bik alex pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe co to pożyczki forminx finance pozabankowa pozyczka bez bik 20000 w jakim banku najszybszy kredyt kredyty internetowe bez bik pożyczki na weksel toruń kredyt bank raszyn pożyczki fasadowe vivus pożyczki rejestracja kredyt pozabankowy gdynia pożyczki chwilówki chrzanów kredyt na samochód bez bik i krd konin kredyt bank łączy się z pożyczki na dowód dzierżoniów forum pożyczki gotówkowe pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki windykacja szybkie pożyczki bez bik gdańsk kredyty pożyczki cała polska pożyczki osoba prywatna podrobiona umowa pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe naklo nad notecia ul rynek pożyczki bez bik i krd forum kredyty lublin kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie profi credit kredyt dla bezrobotnego pożyczki na dowód ekspres kasa pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt kalkulator podatku od pożyczki pożyczki pracownicze oprocentowanie kredyt bank lublin narutowicza telefon kredyty mieszkaniowe łódź pożyczki konkret bocian pożyczki siedziba w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów lublin pożyczki społecznościowe wrocław kredyt bez biku katowice pożyczki bez zaświadczeń zus us bocian pozyczki wągrowiec kredyty chwilówki brzesko pro domo toruń pożyczki kredyt z orange 5 zł pożyczki bez bik chojnice kredyty parkmar w kt kredyt bank iii oddział łódź pozyczki bez bik wrzesnia skarabeusz pożyczki ostrów wlkp pożyczki bocian międzyrzecz ranking banków pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt konsolidacyjny santander consumer bank pożyczki natychmiastowe bez biku kredyt bank warszawa windykacja umowa pożyczki między członkami rodziny wzór pożyczki medyczne bocian pożyczki chełmża pożyczki od osób prywatnych poznań getin bank pożyczki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank akademia przedsiębiorcy kredyt gotówkowy banku bph kody na kredyt w orange eurofin pożyczki umowa pożyczki dla obcokrajowca najtanszy kredyt w jakim banku druk umowy pożyczki gotówki kredyt konsolidacyjny przy niskich zarobkach pożyczki z bikiem pożyczki prywatne wałcz umowa pożyczki między wspólnikami zabezpieczenie umowy pożyczki wekslem reklama pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe lubań kredyt bank godziny otwarcia czestochowa kredyt bank świebodzin kontakt credit agricole swiebodzin pozyczka 10tys wzór umowy udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank monki pożyczki prywatne skarżysko pożyczki oddłużeniowe pożyczki w getin banku kredyt na mieszkanie kalkulator zdolności kredytowej orange kredyt 5 zł bocian pożyczki prudnik kredyt bankowy pdf chomikuj kredyty chwilówki logowanie spółka udziela pożyczki prezesowi pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet kredyt bank sa oddział łódź tanie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki akcess kredyt bankowy raty kredyt bank metro politechnika prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe szczecin pożyczki na energię odnawialną kredyty bez bik i zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt bank chrobrego wrocław jak udzielić pożyczki rodzinie kredyty chwilówki sp z oo lubań kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki świebodzin kredyt bez biku szczecinek kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole kredyt na mieszkanie alior bank opinie udzielę pożyczki na procent kredyt bank powstańców wrocław kredyty chwilówki z jakimi bankami współpracują pożyczki w kredyt banku nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla firm pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i zaświadczeń getin noble bank kredyty gotówkowe pożyczki gold pożyczki chwilówki provident profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank pożyczki brzozów bocian pożyczki jaki procent kredyt bank platforma walutowa gdzie dostac kredyt bez biku kredyt bank starogard gdański godziny otwarcia udzielać pożyczki proz kredyt 4000 bez bik online kredyt pod zastaw domu w banku kredyty pozabankowe naklo nad notecia alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pożyczki bez zaświadczeń łódź pożyczki w domu klienta gorzów wlkp pożyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen euro cash pozyczki szczecin ekspres pożyczki 24 czy łatwo dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank warszawa praga południe kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator rat pożyczki tczew kredyt bank zytnia artur kobus pożyczki kredyt w meritum bank opinie finan pożyczki szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy pko rodzina na swoim kredyt bank kamienna pożyczki bez wykazywania dochodu kredyt samochodowy na firmę korzyści kredyt bank warszawa śliska pożyczka pod hipoteke w białogardzie w banku wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki nowy targ kredyt bez bik i krd z komornikiem kiedy umowa pożyczki jest nieważna podanie o umorzenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt pod zastaw działki bez bik kredyt bank lokata srebrna pożyczki bez bik świebodzin pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowe kredyt bank kontakt mailowy kredyt samochodowy bez bik kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyt kalkulator pożyczki na działalność z urzędu pracy koncepcja pożyczki zwrotnej prodomo pożyczki toruń pożyczki w domu klienta bydgoszcz kredyt bez bik 4 tys szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik zaświadczeń kredyt bank kęty pożyczki dla osób które ukończyły 18 lat pozyczka bez umowy o prace na dowod szczecin wartość godziwa pożyczki czy sygma bank udziela pozyczek wzory umów pożyczki gotówkowej hofman pożyczki umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór pdf pożyczki bez zaświadczeń szczecin kredyt bez bik banki forum pozyczki z obsługą domową warszawa pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt w lukas bank umowa pożyczki wzajemna kredyt mieszkaniowy tczew pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu opole pożyczki bocian braniewo kredyt bank karta zbliżeniowa pożyczki bezzwrotne na działalność gospodarczą kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczanie rat kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego godziny otwarcia kredyt na oświadczenie w credit agricole kredyt bankowy w rachunku zysków i strat umowa pożyczki paliwa kredyt bank zgubienie karty kredyt mieszkaniowy przy wkładzie własnym pożyczki umowa kredyt w banku pbs pożyczki chwilówki bielsko biała kredyt w gorzowie bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki kępno pozyczka filemon kredyt bank sa w gdańsku pożyczki pozabankowe radomsko pożyczki doorfin alior bank kredyt dla firm opinie pożyczki bankowe dla firm pod jaki numer kredyt do orange kredyt bank kasprzaka warszawa kredyt w getin banku kredyt samochodowy dla policjantów kredyt bank jana pawła stara miłosna kredyt gotówkowy bez bik bytom kredyty chwilówki raty pożyczki udzielane przez internet kredyty bez bik słupsk wzór umowy pożyczki gotówkowej w rodzinie vivus limit pożyczki czy w paribas kredyt jest bez bik kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik warszawa provident zwrot pożyczki w ciągu 28 dni pożyczki cent kredyt bank turek pożyczki inteligo kredyt bez bik ruda śląska kredyt porównanie banków druk pożyczki kredyt bank racibórz kredyt bank bankomaty prowizja kredyt bank białostoczek pożyczki w kasie stefczyka pożyczki prywatne bez bik poznań pożyczki bez bik w domu klienta pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi lublin przelew zagraniczny kredyt bank druk pozyczki w domu na oswiadczenie elblag kredyt obrotowy idea bank opinie kredyt bank bok pożyczki chwilówki na dowód lublin kredyt hipoteczny getin pbs kalkulator pożyczki społecznościowe bez bik udziele pożyczki pozabankowej mariusz tierling pożyczki pożyczka bez baz 2014 pożyczki bez bik śląsk kredyt mieszkaniowy wrocław optima pożyczki zielona góra pożyczki bez bik i krd łódź promocyjne pożyczki kredyt bank pl bankowosc elektroniczna kredyt remontowy w banku pekao sa pożyczki chwilówki sosnowiec kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia pożyczki kętrzyn darowizny pożyczki kredyt bank bolesławiec godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne jelenia góra pożyczki bocian formularz kredyty chwilówki sosnowiec blachnickiego facebook pożyczki pożyczki prywatne gostyń kredyt bankowy korzyści pożyczki bocian kościan umowa pożyczki w prawie niemieckim kredyt bank w żarach jak wziąć kredyt w credit agricole kredyt pozabankowe poznan kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe standard kredyt bank zablokowany token kredyt bez bik dąbrowa górnicza kredyty bez bik głogów kredyt chwilówki żary kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól duet pożyczki rzeszów szybka pozyczka gorzow wlkp umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc kredyt bank platnosc karta za granica pożyczki bez bik na telefon banki kredyty z komornikiem tomek zaciągnął w banku omb kredyt alior bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie forum pożyczki na weksel śląsk kredyt bankowy bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw umowa kredyt bank psie pole wrocław kredyt bez bik krotoszyn pożyczki bez bik mielec w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki chwilówki chrzanów dokumenty do kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp kredyt bank godziny otwarcia rumia kredyty chwilówki jelenia góra kredyt w banku pbs kredyty pozabankowe pod weksel pożyczki ostrzeszów pożyczki na rente socjalną umowa pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko forum kredyty pozabankowe zawiercie pożyczki dla nauczycieli w szkole oprocentowanie kredytów w banku śląskim pewne pożyczki dla każdego opinie kredyt bank gdynia bławatna bocian pożyczki gotówkowe kalisz pożyczki pod zastaw sulejówek kody na kredyt w orange kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla nowych firm kredyt samochodowy w banku pko bp pożyczki prywatne opole kredyt bank sa oddział w skierniewicach darmowy kredyt na sam dowod bez zaswiadczen kredyt chwilowki przez internet pożyczki polskie kredyt bank karta concerto kredyt dla firm w banku spółdzielczym optima pożyczki na konto kredyt bank konstancin godziny otwarcia kredyty na samochód bez bik szybkie pożyczki bez bik opinie pożyczki do domu gdańsk pożyczki na pit 11 pozyczki online przez poczte pożyczki gotówkowe bezrobotnych pożyczki z narodowego funduszu ochrony środowiska alex pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych nowy dwór 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i kredyty detaliczne kredyt bank ilość placówek kredyty bez banku pożyczki na weksel śląsk pewny kredyt pozabankowy kredyt w banku na biznes łukasz formela pożyczki pożyczki bez bik bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny gmina jaki kredyt bez bik eurobank kredyt umorzenie pożyczki pracowniczej kredyty chwilówki siedziba kredyt w sobotę kredyt bez bik i krd pożyczki pozabankowe na 15lat pożyczka na oświadczenie przez internet kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator kredyt bank nr iban kredyt bank w raszynie godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe 5000 kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce kredyt pozabankowy śląsk kredyt bank rzeszów adres pożyczki na dowód wadowice bc pożyczki czy kredyt mieszkaniowy można odliczyć od podatku kredyt bez bik glogow kredyt bank w łukowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki za 1 gr kredyt w uk na benefity kredyt mieszkaniowy program prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe gdańsk kredyt w getin banku bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości prywatne kredyt chwilówka opole kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłuzonych wzór umowy pożyczki pieniężnej pdf umowa pożyczki podatek pozyczka prywatna bez baz stalowa wola i okolice kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik kredyt bank podstawowe informacje getin noble bank kredyt opinie kredyt studencki pko czy pekao

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad