kredyt bank transze kredyt bank płatności masowe pożyczki pod weksel trójmiasto pozyczki na procent pila oblicz ratę pożyczki pko kredyt konsolidacyjny marża kredyty pozabankowe bez biku białystoj kredyt bank bielsko tel kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim warunki przyznania kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych firm kredyt bank witkiewicza szczecin wzór umowy pożyczki między firmami pożyczki od najbliższej rodziny marek woch pożyczki kredyt bank otwock andriollego korzystny kredyt w banku pożyczki prywatne radom bocian pożyczka nr tele umowy pożyczki pieniędzy wzory pożyczki na dowód w lublinie kredyty konsolidacyjne z komornikiem pożyczki gotówkowe częstochowa kredyt bank ciechanów telefon lokata rentierska w kredyt banku optima pożyczki ełk kredyt bez bik legnica czy bank stanfader udziela kredytow bez bik umowa pożyczki wzór wieszjak pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu lubuskie getin noble bank kredyt gotówkowy max kredyt bank lublin żagiel ul zana pozyczki z komornikiem miedzyrzec podlaski mg finance pożyczki kredyt studencki pko bp wniosek kredyt bank dekabrystów częstochowa bezpieczny kredyt bez bik opinie legnica pożyczki bez bik pozyczki z komornikiem starachowice kredyt bank w olkuszu pożyczki gwarant opinie rzeczywisty koszt pożyczki pożyczki mieszkaniowe w policji konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2013 wonga pożyczki reklama kredyt studencki wbk 2011 duzy kredyt bez biku kredyty chwilówki turek bank pko bp kredyt studencki pożyczki w domu klienta zielona góra pożyczki gotówkowe toruń kredyt bank minsk mazowiecki kredyt bank godziny otwarcia poznań alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kalkulator polisa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny czy warto forum kredyt bank lokata opinie profi credit warunki otrzymania pożyczki credit agricole pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank bankomaty poznań pożyczki chwilówki kielce pożyczki chwilówki zasady kredyt mieszkaniowy na remont domu pozyczki na dowod czechowice prywatne pozyczka 10000 od osoby prywatnej czestochowa kredyt odnawialny bez biku pożyczki prywatne katowice pozyczki lubin wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt bankowy na rozpoczęcie działalności kredyt odnawialny w credit agricole pożyczki na dowód przez internet wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomych umowa pożyczki pozabankowej w jakim banku wziac kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki komputera kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole kredyt w banku slaskim firma 7 pożyczki praca opinie pożyczki bez biku dla rolników kredyt porównanie banków niebezpieczne pożyczki kredyty bez biku bydgoszcz kredyt bank karty bankomatowe ubezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej umowy pożyczki gotówki kredyt w banku pbs pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt bank kryzys otrzymanie pożyczki a pcc oferta pożyczki ing kredyt bez bik i krd przez internet kredyt bank w raciborzu pożyczki all money kredyt konsolidacyjny plock eurocash pożyczki umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny kredyt studencki warunki pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości dla zadłużonych kredyty chwilowki czestochowa umowa pożyczki zwolnienie z pcc warta pozyczki pożyczki 10000 zł szybki kredyt w banku kasa pożyczki eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny regulamin kredyty bez bik rzeszów kredyty bez bik zus i us kasa stefczyka pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe w zielonej górze kredyt bank janów łódź kredyty bez bik do 80000 kredyt bank warszawa powstańców śląskich umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu bankowego kredyt bank warszawa abrahama 18 pożyczki bez bik rawicz udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę kredyt bank koscian godziny otwarcia pożyczki przez internet lista firm kredyt bank oddział lubin kredyty chwilówki końskie umowa pożyczki firmie wzór kredyt bank karpacz kredyt w kredyt banku pożyczki na telefon 24 kredyt bank wieliczka telefon kredyt bank paypass pożyczki konin kredyty kredyt bank godziny księgowania kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy opinie kredyt bank łowicz podrzeczna kredyt bank liczba akcji pozyczki dla zadlzonych bialystok gwarantowana pożyczka bez bik kredyt chwilówka lodz pro invest pożyczki kredyt bank zakładanie konta kredyt bank mielec kontakt kredyt bank rumia janowo najbardziej korzystne pożyczki pożyczki bez bik ostrów mazowiecka kredyty bez sprawdzania w bik katowice kredyt bank kielce sienkiewicza finan pożyczki szczecin instrumenty finansowe pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kalkulator kredyt bez bik nowy sącz pożyczki pod zastaw auta gdańsk pożyczki bocian w słupsku pożyczki ala provident umowa pożyczki dla pracownika a pcc kredyt bank ciołka bocian pożyczki warszawa pożyczki prywatne w Żorach pożyczki alior bank kredyt chwilówka wrocław jedności narodowej kredyt w banku zachodnim wbk pozyczki prodomo do jakiego odzialu nalezy kwidzyn pożyczka od zaraz chełm kredyt bez biku gdynia kredyty plock bocian szybkie pożyczki grudziądz wzór poręczenia pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bez bik na telefon szybkie pożyczki bez bik kraków szybkie pozyczki zlotoryja bez bik odsetki od pożyczki angielski kredyt bank zmiany kredyt bank w skawinie kredyt mieszkaniowy na remont domu kredyt bank żytnia bankowy kredyt konsumpcyjny jest przeznaczony na czy pozyczki activia sa bez biku pozyczki do domu świdnica pożyczki w uk po polsku kredyt chwilówki zielona góra kredyt studencki jakie banki pozyczki do domu walbrzych kredyt bank szczecinek kontakt kredyty chwilówki gorlice pożyczka dla zadłużonych z komornikiem w koszalinie ing bank kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator gdzie wziasc pozyczke vivus w galeri krakow opole pożyczka bez dochodów kredyt bankowy i jego rodzaje kredyt bank problemy z logowaniem pozyczki dla zadluzonych bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki z dostawą do domu kredyt bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki pozabankowe na samochód pcc od umowy pożyczki dla pracownika pożyczki prywatne żary kredyt na samochód kalkulator getin bank getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu kredyt bank radom traugutta godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe pekao sa kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek on line lukas bank kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego pożyczki bez weryfikacji w bik kredyt bez bik w 5 minut kredyty chwilówki opinie forum daily finance pożyczki pożyczki w uk na rok pozyczka 20000 bez bik i zabezpieczen pożyczki bez bik w puławach kredyt bank sa oddziały pożyczki chwilówki sochaczew uczciwe pożyczki prywatne piła kredyt studencki pko legitymacja kalkulator pożyczki kredytowej kredyty pozabankowe na weksel kredyt m1 pożyczki korona konin najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 pożyczka na dowód w lesznie banki kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli kalkulator kredyty pozabankowe inowrocław pożyczki gotówkowe bez dochodu kredyty bez bik w warszawie pożyczki prywatne pruszków kredyt samochodowy bez bik i krd umowa na czas okreslony czy dostane kredyt kto udziela pozyczek bez bik santander kredyt w salonie samochodowym ktorym pożyczki bez biku w koninie kredyt bez bik na start przedawnienie roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki bankowej jak wziasc kredyt do domu klienta na dowód spłata kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt na oswiadczenie pozyczki umowa na zlecenie krakow bocian pożyczki łódź pożyczki między najbliższymi firma pożyczki chwilówki finanse pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank prowizja opłat umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs po śmierci pracownika kredyt refinansowy w banku pocztowym kredyt na dowód mbank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredytowy kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa kredyt bank w mińsku maz kredyt bank rybnik telefon kredyt bez biku dla zadłużonych kredyty chwilówki starogard kredyt bankowy jak zaksięgować wzór umowa pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt bank witkiewicza szczecin kredyt bank grajewo koszt pożyczki w providencie kredyty pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny bez prowizji getin bank pożyczki do kwoty 6000 złotych pożyczki pod zastaw konin skok wisła pożyczki łatwe kredyty poznan pan kowalski otrzymał kredyt w banku oprocentowany kredyt bank mielżyńskiego poznań pożyczki gotówkowe telefon kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin kredyt bank augustów pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi radom pożyczki prywatne sanok kredyt bank partnerzy kredyt bank emilii plater pożyczki na dowód lubuskie kredyt mieszkaniowy 3x0 w credit agricole pożyczki bez bik legionowo pożyczki gotówkowe marka firmy oferujące pożyczki pozabankowe szybkie pożyczki tarnów pożyczki bezzwrotne kredyt w banku pocztowym kalkulator pożyczki do domu bocian bocian pożyczki śrem prywatne pozyczki siedlce be bik i krd mazowieckie szybki kredyt w banku millennium kredyt mieszkaniowy bez wkładu własnego forum pożyczki na dowód prywatne udzielenie pożyczki wspólnikowi przez spółkę marka paslek pozyczki pożyczki na start dla firm przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredyt bank pocztowy opinie ubezpieczenie zdrowy kredyt w getin banku kredyty bez biku koszalin kredyt samochodowy fiat bank kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy opinie pożyczki na firme bez bik kredyt na start w idea banku opinie czy mozna zawiesic kredyt w banku kredyty chwilówki zamość natychmiastowe pożyczki przez internet umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a podatek dochodowy umowa pożyczki pieniędzy dla córki w jakim banku mały kredyt umowa pożyczki między pracownikiem a pracodawcą kredyt bank wydział zajęć komorniczych pożyczki prywatne kraków jak zaksięgować kredyt bankowy kredyt pozabankowy szczecin kredyty bez biku radom notarialne umorzenie pożyczki dla syna kredyt bank lokata terminowa econstans kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolność kredytowa marka kredyty opinie szybkie pożyczki płock kredyt chwilówka na dowód warszawa kredyt bank ix oddział w warszawie pożyczki prywatne wołomin szybkie pożyczki bytom kredyt konsolidacyjny plus dodatkowa gotówka kredyt bank adres do przelewu kredyty samochodowe getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem opłaty manipulacyjne kredyt studencki pko bp odsetki od pożyczki moment powstania przychodu gross pożyczki opinie pożyczki tak to kredyt bank nieruchomości na sprzedaż getin bank kredyt na mieszkanie kredyt bank ciechocinek telefon pko bank polski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz opinie część pożyczki szybkie pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank adres korespondencyjny kredyt bez bik 2012 pożyczki pod zastaw auta gdańsk kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na zastępstwo odsetki od pożyczki jako koszt uzyskania przychodu universum pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel bydgoszcz pozyczki 7 kredyt bank profil zdobywcy pożyczki na rozwój działalności gospodarczej pożyczki między ludźmi kredyt bank górczewska 200 kredyt konsolidacyjny 15000 kredyt samochodowy dla nowych firm kredyty chwilowki krs pożyczki do 15000 pożyczki w tax care kredyt chwilówka pruszcz umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez zabezpieczeń kredyt bank grudziądzka toruń kredyt bankowy w rachunku bieżącym kredyt bank jelenia góra pozyczki pod zastaw w uk finan pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki dla rolników 2013 obliczanie rat pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy ing oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości forum kredyt w fiat bank getin noble bank przewalutowanie kredytu wbk bank zachodni leszno kredyt porzyczka kredyty bankowe historia pożyczki prywatne jarosław najtańsze pożyczki gotówkowe 2012 kredyt bank strzelce opolskie godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki koszt notariusza umowa pożyczki zawarta dnia pożyczki pozabankowe myszków kredyt z pierwsza pozyczka za darmo pożyczki bez big i bik pożyczki społecznościowe w uk umowa pożyczki powtórnej szybkie pożyczki przez internet ranking optima pożyczki kalisz kredyt mieszkaniowy dofinansowany przez państwo ewidencja pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie pożyczki bez biku zielona góra kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zamość pożyczki chwilówki zabrze kokos pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank banki korespondenci kredyt studencki pko odroczenie spłaty pożyczki społecznościowe szczecin kredyt konsolidacyjny na 10 lat kalkulator kredyty bez bik walbrzych kredyt bank forum money kredyt konsolidacyjny pod zastaw mieszkania ubezpieczenie kredytu gotówkowego alior bank euroloan pożyczki opinie pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości opinie bocian pożyczki mława pożyczki z budżetu jst kredyt bank pozyczka umorzenie udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki społecznościowe co to kredyt bank mikołajki kredyt gotówkowy online bez bik siódemka pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki przez internet pozabankowe pożyczki gotówkowe częstochowa kredyt getin noble bank kredyt bank olsztyn koszt przelewu kredyt bank pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator pożyczki prywatne cieszyn kredyt bez bik na raty pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt bank logo eps pożyczki na oświadczenie bocian pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdańsk zwrot pożyczki ang pożyczki włocławek bez bik pożyczka w domu klienta jelenia góra poręczenie pożyczki reklama pożyczki piosenka kredyt bez bik rzeszów pożyczki chwilówki ekspresowe kredyt mieszkaniowy we frankach kalkulator leasing czy kredyt samochodowy dla firm pożyczki na dowód do 5000 kredyt konsolidacyjny w bs kielce kredyt bank sa nip szybkie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik banki które udzielają kredytu bez bik pożyczki bez bik świdnica kredyt bez biku bez zaswiadczen kredyt bank lokata negocjowana kredyt studencki na preferencyjnych warunkach praca firma pozyczkowa optima pożyczki pod zastaw kościan pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa kredyt w santander consumer bank opinie ing bank śląski kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pozyczki chwilowki konin ul dworcowa kredyty chwilowki starogard gdanski kredyt bank sa w warszawie kredyt studencki 2013 bank spółdzielczy kredyt bank skawina godz otwarcia kredyt bank nr kontaktowy pożyczki gotówkowe pko sa kredyt samochodowy dla firm getin pożyczka plus kłodzko forest pożyczki pożyczki mieszkaniowe z zfśs pożyczki mieszkaniowe pko odsetki od pożyczki działalność gospodarcza pożyczki poznań bez bik kredyt bank pilsudskiego koszalin idea bank kredyt na start opinie szybkie kredyty przey internet w niemczech kredyt na start w idea bank opinie kredyt chwilówki kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy wylicz ratę kredyty chwilówki rzeszów kredyt bank warszawa siedziba kredyt bank niepodległości 54 pozyczki przelewy bez bik pożyczki na spłatę komornika pożyczki remontowe kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych w uk pożyczki pozabankowe trójmiasto opłata za przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki dla ludzi w bik pozyczki na oświadczenie w ostrów mazowiecka w jakim banku wziąć kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski kredyt bank kondycja pożyczki bez biku na telefon pożyczki dla niepełnoletnich lokaty w kredyt banku 2012 kredyt pozabankowy opole pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki bez zameldowania kredyty bez bik gorzów wlkp pozyczki bez bik i krd pożyczki pod zastaw starachowice kredyty w uk mikropożyczki mazowieckie kredyt bank sa nowe pożyczki online kredyt na oświadczenie bez bik kredyt studencki pko wakacje kredyt bank w brodnicy umowa pożyczki skok stefczyka pożyczki olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem pożyczki pozabankowe myszków kredyt bank godziny księgowania kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kalkulator gdzie dostane kredyt bez sprawdzania w biku udzielenie pożyczki innej firmie kredyt bank kłodzko godziny otwarcia pożyczki z pracy pożyczki gotówkowe legnica ogłoszenia pożyczki za darmo pożyczki na dowód wrocław odsetki od pożyczki kup czy nkup

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad