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kredyt bank centrum windykacji pożyczki pozabankowe wady i zalety kredyt konsolidacyjny zwrot ubezpieczenia kredyt bez bik na 20 lat umowa pożyczki pcc księgowanie wpłat w kredyt banku pilny kredyt nowy targ kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator porównanie kredyt bank w malborku wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem wekslowym kredyt bank śląski kalkulator kredyt bank dzienny limit operacji kredyt bank zytnia 15 godziny otwarcia kredyt bank kraków dietla kredyt bank gdzie wyplacac bez prowizji praca kredyty chwilówki płock pożyczki bez bik ratalne placówki kredyt banku białystok pożyczki bez bik krd erif rozdzielność majątkowa a kredyt w banku kredyt dla zadłużonych opole, brzeg pozyczka od zaraz na dowit w poznaniu kredyt bank jutrzenki pszczółka pożyczki opinie pożyczki wojenne przedawnienie pożyczki art pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej kredyt bank z bz wbk skok pozyczki bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny na karty kredytowe kredyt bank lista bezpłatnych bankomatów kredyty bankowe i ich zabezpieczenia praca magisterska kredyt bank łódź bednarska kredyt bank infolinia numer umowa pożyczki a us kredyt bank jawor kredyty chwilówki kościerzyna kredyty pozabankowe bez bik poznań umowa pożyczki ważność kredyty bez bik i krd przez internet umowa pożyczki nieoprocentowanej kredyt konsolidacyjny przy zajęciu komorniczym kredyty chwilówki wejherowo pożyczki na procent jelenia góra pożyczki bez zaświadczeń szczecin idea bank kredyt przez internet pożyczki od osób prywatnych wałbrzych pożyczki dla widniejących w krd oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki wzór kredyt dla firm bez bik big kredyt bank x oddział w warszawie patryk raczkowski pożyczki lojalka w kredyt banku pożyczki chwilówki bez baz kredyty chwilówki kafeteria umowa pożyczki spółka szybki kredyt przez internet bez bik kredyt bank nysa szopena pożyczki bez zaświadczeń na dowód visset pożyczki bez bik na dowód kredyt mieszkaniowy stałe oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki skok kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku bph pożyczki końskie pozyczki uk 24 h na dobe szybki kredyt w banku millennium kredyty mieszkaniowe szczecin podatek od odsetek od pożyczki dla osoby fizycznej kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń na 10 lat kredyt bank praca olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny praca w uk pożyczki włodawa alior bank kredyt refinansowy getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe fax umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki wzór pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt w getin banku kalkulator kredyt mieszkaniowy powyżej 100 umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu bankowego kredyt w banku brodnickim pożyczki pozabankowe podlaskie oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy pożyczki prywatne pilne kredyt bank ken 57 warszawa kredyt bank grójecka godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy dokumenty termin przedawnienia z umowy pożyczki najnowsze pożyczki chwilówki online kredyt bez bik pozabankowy kredyt bank piłsudskiego wrocław pożyczka bez bik przez internet w 15 minut forum kredyt bank biala podlaska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank poznań niepodległości godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik kolobrzeg pożyczki pod nieruchomość pilnie poszukuje pożyczki pożyczki niskoprocentowe pożyczki dla niepracujących kredyty bankowe krakow pożyczki uk online kredyty bez bik na oświadczenie pożyczki bez bik w radomiu warszawa kredyty chwilowki mieszkanie na kredyt hipoteczny nowy targ prywatne pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki bez bik i krd gdańsk pożyczki z komornikiem wrocław pożyczki chwilówki opinie pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk podwale kredyty konsolidacyjne lublin kredyt bank żary kontakt kredyty chwilówki świebodzin kredyt bank łódź oddziały kredyt bank zapomniałem hasła kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator online kredyty chwilówki poznań praca kredyty pozabankowe kredyty w pko bp sa wycena pożyczki w euro pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczenia o zarobkach kredyty bez bik kolobrzeg pożyczki bez bik big erif cesja umowy pożyczki wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny notus podstawa opodatkowania umowy pożyczki kredyt bank braniewo pożyczki prywatne gliwice optima pożyczki wołomin kredyt jako produkt bankowy pożyczki w domu klienta katowice kredyt bank lokaty jednodniowe kredyt konsolidacyjny rodzina na swoim kredyt bank zmienia właściciela kredyt w banku na biznes alior bank kredyt symulacja ekspresowe pożyczki gotówkowe jak wziąć kredyt bez biku pożyczki gotówkowe na oświadczenie warunki pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank włodawa telefon kredyt bank włodawa tel pożyczki pozabankowe gniezno pożyczki pod zastaw stargard kredyt bank mikołów godziny otwarcia kredyty dla osob z zajeciami komorniczymi tel orange kredyty chwilówki bytom ul jagiellońska cz bank pocztowy daje kredyty mdm kredyty chwilówki firmy kredyt bank rachunki szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń i bez bik pożyczki prywatne żywiec santander consumer bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator obligacja pożyczki dolarowej duet pożyczki częstochowa kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres kredytowania kredyt bank rzeszow 3 maja kredyt bez bik dla zadłużonych forum pożyczki pod zastaw auta legnica pożyczki bez bik wadowice pozyczki internetowe bez sprawdzania bik i krs bocian pożyczki przyznawalność kredyt studencki na mieszkanie lukas bank kalkulator oprocentowania pożyczki opodatkowanie odsetek pożyczki pożyczki polaków szybka pozyczka z dostawa do domu zywiec kredyt bank gorzów matejki godziny otwarcia kredyty mieszkaniowe w kredyt banku kredyt bank hr pożyczki bez erif pożyczki praca kredyt bez bik pruszków kredyt konsolidacyjny 60000 kredyt w credit agricole forum pożyczki prywatne wrocław kredyty dla rolników bez biku czy umowa pożyczki wymaga formy pisemnej kredyt bank altus umorzenie pożyczki wzór pisma kredyty do firm parabanki kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najtaniej jak uzyskać kredyt bez bik alior bank kredyty studenckie pożyczki gotówkowe ełk ewidencja księgowa pożyczki z banku kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania millenium takto pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank rachunek maklerski pożyczki w 5 minut pko kredyt bez bik kredyty bez bik częstochowa kredyt bank skawina godziny otwarcia konsolidacja kredytu w wbk kredyty chwilowki umowa zlecenie kredyt bez bik żary belgia kredyty forum kredyt bankowy jest zawsze oprocentowany pożyczki bez bik nowa sól kredyt bez bik do 50 000 lodz bank pko bp kredyty dla wspolnot mieszkankowych kredyt bez bik krotoszyn wniosek o kredyt konsolidacyjny alior bank pożyczki bez bik lublin ranking kredytów samochodowych marzec 2013 odznaka pożyczki narodowej 1933 kredyt w uk na firme pożyczki udzielane w domu kredyty bankowe to konto pozyczki poza bankowe skarbiec kredyty bez bik i krd kraków kredyt bank godziny otwarcia zielona góra kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie oprocentowanie godziny przelewów przychodzących kredyt bank tani kredyt bez bik bank pko kredyt rodzina na swoim warunki kredyt gotowkowy w banku santander kredyty chwilówki jaworzno pożyczki bez bik w kaliszu allekasa pożyczki pożyczki od osób prywatnych białystok gdzie mozna uzyskac kredyt bez bik pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe zfśs pożyczki bezpośrednie część pożyczki państwowej puszczona w obieg szybkie pożyczki ełk pożyczki bez sprawdzania zdolności kredytowej i bik kredyt bank lublin zana 39 błyskawiczne pożyczki bez bik kredyty bankowe klasyfikacja pozyczki do domu radomsko pożyczki warszawa bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe ruda śląska optima pożyczki kielce kredyt mieszkaniowy w noble bank pożyczka prywatna od ręki kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kalkulator alior bank kredyt oddłużeniowy kredyty chwilówki w olkuszu bank pocztowy kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pozyczka na telefon wrzesnia okolice alior bank kredyt samochodowy opinie wycena bilansowa pożyczki w walucie kwota główna pożyczki pożyczki prometeusz olsztyn pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik online pożyczki bocian reklama pożyczki chwilówki oleśnica odsetki od pożyczki różnice kursowe kredyty w uk credit agricole pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bank w wolominie umowa pożyczki na czas nieoznaczony kredyt bank właściciel pożyczki chwilówki 24 gdzie pożyczki dla zadłużonych kredyt bank mielec mickiewicza kredyty bez bik i krd rybnik szybkie pożyczki inowrocław umowa pożyczki pieniędzy bez odsetek kredyt gotówkowy w lukas banku kredyt w banku a śmierć kredytobiorcy pożyczki bez meldunku i dochodu stargard kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank kalkulator udzielenie pożyczki innej firmie kredyt bez biku gliwice kredyt bank w koninie wzór umowy pożyczki pieniędzy pdf kredyt rodzina na swoim bank pocztowy kalkulator pożyczki na procent kraków kredyt w banku wymagania pozyczki łodz kontakt ktore banki daja kredyt zadluzonym kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatami windykacja pożyczki ubezpieczenie kredytu w getin noble bank kredyty banku bph kredyt bank lokaty negocjowane pożyczki na procent gdańsk kredyt studencki pko kwota kredyt bank aktualne oprocentowanie lokat umowa pożyczki wynagrodzenie prodomo pożyczki nowe mia kredyt pozabankowy przez internet forum pożyczki prywatne lębork pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych pożyczki ślimak poznań wzór umowy pożyczki chwilówki kredyt mieszkaniowy przy umowie na czas określony kredyt z banku a podatek pożyczki 24h warszawa plock kredyty bez bik opinie regulamin pożyczki dla pracownika tanie pożyczki bez bik pożyczki w allegro kredyt getin bank 30000 pf kredyty chwilówki umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pdf kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki korona konin kredyt bank przejęcie 2011 pożyczki bez biku rzeszów kredyty pozabankowe elbląg limit pożyczki kredyt bank żyrardów kontakt pożyczki od właścicieli w bilansie skarabeusz pożyczki podkarpacie pożyczki bocian międzyrzecz dobosiewicz kredyty i gwarancje bankowe pdf ujęcie pożyczki w bilansie pożyczki bez bik dla rolników kredyt bank w częstochowie orange jaki kod na kredyt pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej warszawa szybkie pożyczki przez internet bez krd kredyt bank dział marketingu kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator zdolności kredytowej pożyczki w domu koszalin konwersja pożyczki na udziały kredyt bank oferty pracy kredyty w idea banku kredyt bank bankomat ustka pożyczki cash kredyt w uk na benefity allekasa pożyczki kredyt bank z kim się połączył kredyt studencki pko bp terminy pożyczki pszczyna kredyt bez bik oświęcim kredyt bank 3 maja lublin kredyt orange 2zl kredyt w getin banku na pit kod do kredytu w orange alior bank kredyt na auto kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kalkulator rat pożyczki prywatne chrzanów kredyty mieszkaniowe październik 2013 kredyt bank karta kredytowa mastercard world umowy pożyczki od rodziny wzór szybkie pożyczki wrocław kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank opinie pożyczki pod zastaw rzeszów policyjne pożyczki umowa pożyczki z ustanowieniem zastawu kredyty pozabankowe białystok kredyt bank janów kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange kredyt bank garibaldiego godziny otwarcia małgorzata iwańska pożyczki opinie pożyczki na dowód tylko kredyty mieszkaniowe na 100 wartości kredyt częstochowa forum 2014 jak dlugo sie czeka na kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie kredyt bank eurobank oprocentowanie rachunku depozytowego w kredyt banku pożyczki pozabankowe w krakowie pożyczki bez przelewu kredyty mieszkaniowe książki kredyt bank karmelicka kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki tychy fabryczna 5 pożyczki bez biku w tomaszowie maz warunki kredytu w credit agricole kredyt bank w sochaczewie umowa pożyczki firma firmie udzielę prywatnej pożyczki online kredyt gotówkowy w jakim banku forum kredyt bank bric kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaswiadczen odsetki karne pożyczki kredyt bank centrala warszawa bocian pożyczki stargard szczeciński kredyt z banku kredyt a umowa na czas określony kredyty chwilówki opinia o firmie pożyczki na franczyzę pożyczki wspólników udzielane spółkom kapitałowym kamila ignasiak pożyczki pożyczki prywatne bocian najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2014 pożyczki bez bik w gorzowie wlkp pożyczki no dowód elblag pożyczki lipno szybkie pożyczki bez bik radom pożyczki na dowód polkowice kredyt bez bik przez telefon szybkie pożyczki bez bik i krd getin bank warunki pożyczki dobre szybkie pozyczki bez biku i krd umowa pożyczki bankowej wzór wzór na obliczenie oprocentowania pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe ranking 2013 pożyczki nysa cash machine pożyczki alior bank kredyt dla seniora pożyczki gotówkowe z komornikiem mikropożyczki z efs kredyt konsolidacyjny citibank opinie kredyt bez bik lodz pożyczki nowa ruda pożyczki na dowód piła umowa pożyczki cywilnej getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad