pożyczki pozabankowe na dłuższy okres millennium pożyczki kredyt bez biku bank pożyczki pod weksel wrocław kredyt bank ekstrabiznes pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski kredyty chwilówki trzebinia pożyczka 200 zł żywiec pożyczka kredyt bank warszawa rudnickiego podatek odsetek pożyczki duzy kredyt konsolidacyjny optima pożyczki zasady kredyt bank właściciel umowa pożyczki dla rodziny kredyt konsolidacyjny zamkniecie rachunku w pożyczki długoterminowe uk kredyt bank krotoszyn burzyńska pożyczki szybkie pożyczki bez bik gdańsk umowa pożyczki cywilno prawnej kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator online pozyczka bez bik w pko bp fotum kredyty konsolidacyjne bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko kalkulator umowa pożyczki chwilówka w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy szybkie pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank lipowa kredyt orange na jaki numer wypowiedzenie pożyczki kredyt bank radzymin kredyt bank w kluczborku gold cash pożyczki kredyt bank średni kurs walut kredyt bank w bogatyni getin noble bank pożyczki bank pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu łódź kredyt w banku oprocentowanie szybkie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny na spłatę zadłużeń uruchomienie pożyczki pożyczka do ręki prywatna bez dochodu warszawa kredyty bez bik i krd przez internet kredyt w banku na spłatę komornika kredyt bank chrzanów tel kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank kredyt mieszkaniowy a małżeństwo udzielić pożyczki po niemiecku jak zaksięgować pcc od umowy pożyczki szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik przez internet najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty mieszkaniowe dla singli forum pożyczki pozabankowe oświęcim kredyty chwilowki umowa zlecenie ewidencja księgowa pożyczki od udziałowca pod jaki numer bierze sie kredyt orange kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator porównanie kredyty chwilówki pracownik reklamy pożyczki do 10tys kredyt bank sa windykacja kredyt gotówkowy pekao sa opinie pożyczki prywatne olsztyn kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń pożyczki chwilówki 18 lat poznań pożyczki chwilówki sprzedaż kredyt banku forum pożyczki bez bik oferty kredyt bank w katowicach kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator mbank zwrot pożyczki english kredyty chwilówki optima oddziały kredyt banku w warszawie pożyczki prywatne kalisz kredyt bank kolegialna płock pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych prywatne pożyczki na weksel bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt studencki kredyt bank wspólnoty mieszkaniowe pożyczki bez bik dla firm eurobank ubezpieczenie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki historia kredyt bank koszalin godziny otwarcia kredyt kupiecki w banku kredyt dla policjantow promocja 2014 pożyczki od osób prywatnych warszawa kokos pożyczki forum pożyczki bez zaświadczeń koszalin kredyt bank oddział w krakowie kredyt bez bik do 100 000 pożyczki gotówkowe uk pożyczki naziemne prodomo pożyczki toruń pożyczka pozabankowa merritum bank kredyty mieszkaniowe alior bank kredyty dla studentów bzwbk kredyt samochodowy bez bik rzeszów przejęcie kredyt banku przez wbk pożyczki głubczyce kredyt bez bik na budowe pożyczki racibórz kredyt konsolidacyjny teoria gdzie kredyt z krd mińsk mazowiecki kredyt na mieszkanie w skoku z zla chistoria kredytowa pożyczki świąteczne jak wziasc kredyt do 25000 kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie porównanie kredyt bank łódź piotrkowska 212 waloryzacja kwoty pożyczki kredyt bez biku i zdolności kredytowej pożyczki oddłużeniowe kraków szybkie pożyczki kalisz kredyty pozabankowe bielsko biala pożyczki od ręki bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy na wykup mieszkania z komornikiem kredyty mieszkaniowe forum 2014 kredyty chwilowki deblin pożyczki społecznościowe co to oddziały kredyt banku szczecin kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej bzwbk optima pożyczki praca forum pożyczki od osób prywatnych kielce kredyt samochodowy get in bank wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki pkzp wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki długoterminowe definicja kredyty konsolidacyjne bez bik i krd pożyczki charakterystyka pożyczki ze złą historią w bik kredyt bank stradomska godziny otwarcia kredyt preferencyjny alior bank kredyt bez bik na zakup mieszkania kredyt bank godziny przelewów kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyt bank oferty pozyczek we wrzesni pożyczki pod zastaw giżycko mbank pożyczki gotówkowe bezpieczne pożyczki przez internet umowa pożyczki od członka zarządu alior bank kredyt w euro kredyt samochodowy w santander pożyczki chwilówki lublin kredyt mieszkaniowy dla młodych małżeństw pko pożyczki na dowód warszawa kredyt studencki pko bp spłata kwituję odbiór pożyczki kredyt bank rada nadzorcza pożyczki z unii dla firm provident zwrot pożyczki bank pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny parabank pożyczki lichwiarskie łódź pojęcie pożyczki bankowej chwilówki bez zdolności kredytowej kredyty chwilówki oszustwo kredyt inwestycyjny idea bank forum polcredit pożyczki kredyt na zakup ziemi w banku spółdzielczym pożycze prywatnie bez przedpłat pożyczki chwilówki na 60 dni pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online szybkie pożyczki katowice optima pożyczki do domu opinie provident umowa pożyczki kredyt bank maestro kredyt bank białystok mickiewicza tel pożyczki chwilówki katowice pożyczki na dowód kutno podanie o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt bank euro kurs kredyty chwilówki siedlce kredyt online bez bik idea bank kredyty gotówkowe lombard pożyczki pod zastaw poznań umorzenie pożyczki w euro umowa pożyczki od pracodawcy optima pożyczki oddziały pożyczki novum kruk opinie pożyczki gotówkowe śląsk kredyty chwilówka żywiec pożyczki pozabankowe kościan kredyt bank gdansk zaspa pozyczki bez bik do 25000 kredyt konsolidacyjny w paribas pożyczki dla osób pracujących w domu kredyt bank grupa kapitałowa księgowanie pożyczki zfśs 4you pozyczki w uk windykacja pożyczki z zfśs podstawa opodatkowania pożyczki pozyczka bocian dla bezrobotnych kredyt konsolidacyjny dla emeryta kredyt bank wesoła telefon pożyczki pozabankowe września pożyczki bez bik tarnowskie góry kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna umowa pożyczki ważność marka puławy pożyczki na dowód kredyt bez bik chwilówka kredyt bank czestochowa al nmp kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania millenium tanie pożyczki gotówkowe opinie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny wzór kredyty mieszkaniowe bankier kredyt bank zmiana pinu kredyt bez bij do 20000 tys pożyczki pozabankowe rumia pożyczki 24h warszawa kiedy odsetki od pożyczki nie są kosztem podatkowym pożyczki na dowód nysa oświadczenie pożyczki pieniędzy wzór kredyt gotówkowy w banku paribas kredyt bank w jakich bankomatach bez prowizji kredyty bez bik i krd łódź pożyczki na dowód kołobrzeg kredyt w orange na karte 2 zł kredyt bankowy okres przedawnienia pko kredyt konsolidacyjny forum pozyczki krosno kredyt bank prowizja od wypłaty kredyt z idea bank opinie nowe kredyty bez bik i krd kredyt bank łódź zgierska godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy najkorzystniejszy pożyczki toruń bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny bank millennium pożyczki gotówkowe udzielane w domu bocian pożyczki chojnice skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe lubin pożyczki gotówkowe koszalin szybkie kredyty dla firm bez bik jaki bank 10000 pozyczka na splate komornika kredyt bank nordea kredyty pozabankowe skierniewice opodatkowanie otrzymanej pożyczki pkwiu pożyczki kredyty bez bik rzeszów kredyt inwestycyjny banku bgż kredyt mieszkaniowy 130 profinet pożyczki praca pożyczki bez bik strzelce opolskie kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej boś kredyt bank w kaliszu pożyczki w kasie stefczyka obsługa pożyczki w domu kredyt bank kraków ul królewska 55 pożyczki pozabankowe 2012 udzielę pożyczki pod weksel poznań pt wygodne pożyczki opinie kredyt w banku skok stefczyka pożyczki społecznościowe wiki kredyt bank chorzów godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe żary santander consumer bank kredyt ze zla historia pożyczki bez bik i krd katowice kredyt pozabankowy forum kronos pożyczki warszawa skarabeusz pożyczki praca kredyt dla nowych firm idea bank opinie kredyt bank w zambrowie pekao sa kredyty studenckie kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy mbank pożyczki bez bik łódź forum kredyt bankowy klasyfikacja pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja kredyt niski procent w santander consumer bank kredyt bank gowork kredyty chwilówki tychy niepodległości pożyczki na renty socjalne kredyt w orange kredyty dla osob z zajeciami komorniczymi tel orange nr tel pożyczki bocian stargard szczeciński kontakt kredyt dla policjantow promocja 2014 kredyty bez bik zgorzelec kredyty chwilówki impreza firmowa kredyt konsolidacyjny polbanku ubezpieczenie kredytu gotówkowego w lukas bank pożyczki ze spłatą tygodniową kredyty mieszkaniowe getin bank kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto kredyt bank kontakt centrala adres pozyczki bocian w chelmie kredyty chwilówki opole reymonta wzór umowy pożyczki pcc kredyt bank w sanoku pożyczki na dowód chełmno kredyt budowlany w jakim banku historia pożyczki blyskawiczne pozyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator credit agricole kredyt bankowy bilans umorzenie pożyczki przychód kredyt bank kielce sienkiewicza łukta pożyczki adres kredyt banku centrala pożyczki niskooprocentowane pożyczki pozabankowe myszków kredyt bez bik który bank kredyt bez bik od ręki umowa pożyczki pieniędzy w rodzinie wzór kredyty w banku pocztowym forum kredyt bank w mlawie pożyczki pod weksel gdańsk kredyt samochodowy pozabankowy kredyt pozabankowy online kredyt bank sa w warszawie departament windykacji kredyt studencki bank zachodni wbk kredyt bank getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy a dochody kredyt bank w rzeszowie najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyty mieszkaniowe starego portfela pożyczki myślenice umowa pożyczki bankowej kredyty w uk na benefity pożyczki chwilówki od zaraz kredyt studencki pekao sa 2012 pozyczki pod zastaw w uk pożyczki dla małych firm z unii kredyty konsolidacyjne uk pożyczki chwilówki szczytno kredyty pozabankowe czestochowa kredyty chwilówki praca pożyczki bez bik i krd z komornikiem umowa pożyczki z zfśs kredyty bez bik i krd lublin zwrot pożyczki ang pozyczki 18lat bialystok tani kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kredyt bez bik rzeszów kredyty z zło zdolnoscio kredytowo kredyt chwilówka od 18 lat kredyt getin bank forum kredyt bank historia banku kredyt bank bolesławiec godziny otwarcia pozyczki chwilowki optima krakow kredyt bank sa z siedzibą w warszawie idea bank kredyt gotówkowy opinie pożyczki chwilówki dla studentów kredyt bank payu gdzie kredyt bez bik forum kredyt konsolidacyjny bnp paribas opinie patryk raczkowski pożyczki kredyt bank łuków praca pożyczki bez bik przez internet w 15 minut pożyczki 1000 zł pożyczki jeremie mazowieckie idea bank kredyt online kredyt w banku uk bocian pożyczki gryfice kredyt bez bik w pile kredyt konsolidacyjny plusy i minusy kredyt konsolidacyjny wniosek online idea bank kredyt dla firm opinie reklamy pozyczek pozabankowych w ostrowie i kaliszu czym różni się kredyt bankowy od lokaty pożyczki online bez biku jak napisać wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole opinie optima pożyczki słupsk kredyt konsolidacyjny co to znaczy czy warto brać kredyt w getin banku kredyt internetowy bez biku umorzenie pożyczki fundusz socjalny kredyt bankowy w rachunku bieżącym kredyt bank pulawy kredyt bank międzyrzecz kredyt bank spółdzielczy skawina jakie jest oprocentowanie w stefczyku pozyczki pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy kredyt mieszkaniowy stary portfel kredyt w banku najniższe oprocentowanie kredyty bez bik internetowe kredyt gotówkowy alior bank forum skok wybrzeże pożyczki pozyczki bez bik kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bik pozyczki na dowud lub firme kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy kredyt bez historii bik szybkie kredyty chwilówki konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pcc pożyczki pod zastaw samochodów opole kredyt bank koło tel pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami wzór bocian pożyczki leszno alior bank kredyt na samochód kredyt bank nr iban likwidacja rachunku w kredyt banku alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank bochnia godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe do domu klienta pożyczki chwilówki w pile pożyczki prywatne skarżysko polskie finanse pożyczki optima pożyczki bez sprawdzania bik kredyt bank siedlce piłsudskiego kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy 350 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking banków prowident krakow pozyczk kredyt pozabankowy 20000 mariusz dudziński pożyczki kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy kredyt bank kędzierzyn kredyt bez biku bielsko jak obliczyć odsetki od umowy pożyczki optima pożyczki przez internet wzor umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą pożyczki chwilówki bez big umowa pożyczki pozabankowej umowa pożyczki wyłudzenie oferty pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bank wrocław siedziba alior bank kredyt na pit kredyt bank gostyń tel kredyty na sam dowód pozabankowe racibórz kredyt bank ożarów pożyczki chwilówki krosno kredyty chwilówki od ręki kredyty gotówkowe bez bik łódź kredyty bez biku jaworzno pożyczki chwilówki jaki procent pożyczki bez biku włocławek idea bank kredyt na start firmy opinie kredyty chwilówki reklama pozyczki bez bik i krd kredyt bank w tomaszowie mazowieckim kredyt bank dział reklamacji pożyczki 18 lat pożyczka pod zastaw samochodu warszawa ul grochowska kredyt gotówkowy bez bik łódź pożyczki chwilówki bez bik olsztyn kredyt bank bankomaty partnerskie kredyty chwilówki windykacja tychy pożyczki bez bik getin bank kredyty chwilówki w opolu najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bez bik pożyczki dla zadłużonych w bik firma pożyczki chwilówki pko kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm umowa dotycząca pożyczki meritum bank kredyt opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku kredyt bank lebork godziny otwarcia abis pozyczki chwilowki kontakt telefonizny kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury godziny otwarcia kredyt bank pożyczka kredyty bez bik 5000 kredyt bank płatności masowe kredyt na dowód jaki bank kredyty pozabankowe pod zastaw domu pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa kredyt bez bik w rybniku kredyt bez bik mława kredyt bankowy obrotowy szybki kredyt w jakim banku najlepiej wziasx kredyt bank z jakich bankomatów za darmo kredyt bank ekstrakonto s pożyczki oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw ziemi rolnej kredyt bank bic swift takto pożyczki kontakt pożyczki pod zastaw auta wrocław szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe warszawa pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i zadłużonych wyliczenie rat pożyczki kredyt bank ustka godziny otwarcia pożyczki do 15000 kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny pocztowy bank legnica santander kredyt samochodowy prowizja kredyt w banku bzwbk pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik bydgoszcz pozyczki udzielane w domu klienta bydgoszcz kredyt bank pozew zbiorowy udzielę pożyczki prywatnej śląsk kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko sa kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 tys kredyty bez biku tychy pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz kredyt w meritum banku opinie look pozyczki i podobne kredyt bank lublin zana w jakim banku wybrać kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki bez bik ełk skarabeusz chorzów pożyczka na dowód rodzaje kredytów bankowych dla msp kredyty chwilówki świebodzin kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej w pekao sa kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik przemyśl ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych grudzień 2012

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad