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27 poznań księgowanie pożyczki otrzymanej kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w biku kredyty bez bik i krd poznań kredyty chwilowki krakow kredyt bank w sokółce kredyt bank adresy w warszawie gdzie kredyt bez bik forum lendon pożyczki opinie pożyczki infinity kredyt przez internet bez sprawdzania w bik szybkie pożyczki w uk opinie panda pozyczki opole umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu wzór kredyty banku pocztowego kredyt studencki w jakim banku 2011 obligacja 6 pożyczki narodowej kredyt bank kosciuszki kielce umowa pożyczki w spółce akcyjnej pożyczka konsolidacyjna w domu klienta kredyt bank chorzów wolności kredyty na umowe na czas okreslony podatek pcc od pożyczki a koszty uzyskania przychodu pożyczki prywatne w domu klienta pożyczki oblicz ratę pożyczki feniks pożyczki gotówkowe niskie oprocentowanie kredyt w uk dla każdego kredyty bez bik dabrowa gornicza szybkie pożyczki bankowe umowa pożyczki wspólnika ze spółką kredyty w idea bank opinie kredyt bank bankomaty włocławek kredyt gotówkowy w deutsche bank kredyt mieszkaniowy przy niskich zarobkach kredyt bank grajewo kredyt bez biku w jakim banku kredyty chwilówki wałbrzych pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik oblicz ratę pożyczki santander pożyczki tylko na dowód osobisty proton pożyczki kredyt bank a wbk umorzenie pożyczki pit 8c kredyt konsolidacyjny 150 tys bez zgody wspolmalzonka bank pocztowy kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt mieszkaniowy dla pary bez ślubu kredyt bank gotówka kredyty chwilówki dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej głogowski pożyczki kredyt z komornikiem prywatny inwestor pożyczki unijne bezzwrotne umowa pożyczki gotówkowej druk wyłudzenie pożyczki prywatnej kredyty chwilówki boguszowice kredyt konsolidacyjny w sygma bank pożyczki z komornikiem pożyczki na dowód od 19 lat pod jaki numer kredyt w orange pożyczki w domu klienta piła kredyt na już bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw augustów kredyt dla emeryta w getin banku kredyty chwilówki koszt kredyt w banku pocztowym dla funkcjonariuszy kredyt bank gorzów wlkp pożyczki parabanki żyrafa pożyczki rejestracja kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pko bp jak księgować pożyczki z zfśs prywatne pożyczki inwestycyjne szybkie pozyczki na dowod data wymagalności pożyczki pożyczki chojnice kredyt bank niemcewicza kredyt bank rybnik wolności kredyt bank x oddział warszawa kredyt bank gdynia karwiny godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki bez prowizji pożyczki bez sprawdzania w big najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank x oddział warszawa kredyt bank bankomaty za granicą kredyt bank plac legionów wrocław kredyt chwilówka sosnowiec kredyty konsolidacyjne ze złą historią w bik pożyczki dla bezrobotnych bez bik kredyt bankowy a pożyczka bankowa kredyt bank łódź zgierska godziny otwarcia kredyty konsolidacyjne bz wbk kredyt samochodowy dla 20 latka umowa pożyczki bank kredyt bank szczecin adres kredyt w banku opinie kredyty prywatne pod weksel kredyt konsolidacyjny alior opinie kredyt bank nfc kredyty samochodowe bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt dla firm w banku pocztowym umowa pożyczki stawka pcc bocian pożyczki przyznawalność idea bank kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach plock pożyczki bez bik wałcz pożyczki prywatne oprocentowanie kredyt bank bz wbk połączenie weryfikacja kredytow tempo finanse pożyczki prodomo pożyczki internetowe bez prowizji umorzenie pożyczki przez gminę połączenie kredyt banku z bz wbk umowa pożyczki na zakup towaru wzór pożyczki dla zadłużonych poznań bocian pożyczki wniosek kredyty chwilówki gorzów wielkopolski kredyt bank konstantynów łódzki godziny otwarcia udzielenie pożyczki gofin pożyczki w tesco kredyt konsolidacyjny w millenium pożyczki pod zastaw przepisy w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt 2013 kredyt bank rozana warszawa kredyt bank dietla 68 kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu bez prowizji pożyczki bez bik na dowód kraków odsetki od pożyczki faktura wewnętrzna kredyt bank notowania funduszy inwestycyjnych bank pko bp kredyt inwestycyjny kredyty pozabankowe kraków kredyt bank strzelce opolskie kontakt pożyczki społecznościowe bez zaświadczeń pożyczki przez internet getin bank kredyty w getin bank opinie kredyt bank włocławek promienna godziny vivus wysokość pożyczki została zmniejszona kredyt konsolidacyjny expander kalkulator umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny tani kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki koscierzyna żagiel pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank 10 kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik kredyt na dowód bank spółdzielczy gdzie kredyt pozabankowy bez bik alior bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator druk zwrotu pożyczki pożyczki bez bik ostrołęka kredyt bez bik płock pożyczki prywatne aktualne oferty bocian pożyczki kalisz pożyczki prywatne zasady pożyczki prywatne szczecin prometeusz pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank chrobrego alior bank kredyt na dowód pożyczki bez bik oprocentowanie pożyczki chwilówki świdnica kredyt bank mikołów kontakt bocian pożyczki czat wzór umowy pożyczki ratalnej pożyczki mikro kredyty chwilówki partner opinie zmiana nazwiska a kredyt w banku finan pożyczki legnica kredyt konsolidacyjny 2013 najtańszy kredyt na 30 tyś bez bik kredyt pozabankowy inowrocław pożyczki kasa kredyt mieszkaniowy komornik bocian pożyczki przyznawalność kredyt bank ochrony środowiska pożyczki gotówkowe nowy targ kredyt konsolidacyjny w agricole dobre pożyczki bez biku kredyt bank garbary lukas bank kredyt przez internet kredyt gotówkowy bez bik online kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki wynagrodzenie pożyczki online z bikiem kredyt samochodowy santander forum pożyczki pomiędzy członkami rodziny pożyczki bez biku w lublinie kredyt dla firm w idea bank opinie kredyt bez bik na dowod sosnowiec kredyt chwilówka staszów kredyt credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bez bik bez poreczycieli kredyt bankowy bez krd prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe gdańsk pożyczki do 8000 pbs kredyty pod działalność gosp pożyczki bez zaświadczeń szczecin kredyt bez biku 20000 kredyt bank w kluczborku umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a osobą fizyczną pożyczki bez bik do 10 tys kredyt studencki zasady udzielania kredyt bank biała umowa pożyczki forum pozyczki dla beezrobotnych pożyczki okey obliczanie procentów pożyczki kredyt bank piłsudskiego koszalin pożyczki społecznościowe abis kredyt bank kolbuszowa umowa pożyczki od udziałowca wzór udzielić pożyczki po ang dramatyczne zwolnienia w kredyt banku pożyczki bez bik chełm pożyczka na 60 dni pożyczki społecznościowe a podatek kredyt w ulster banku uk umowa pośrednictwa pożyczki pożyczki ze złą historią w biku prywatne pożyczki na weksel pożyczki gotówkowe gdynia banki udzielajace kredyt na pit krakow kredyt bank wrocław siedziba pożyczki nieopodatkowane kredyt mieszkaniowy lukas bank kalkulator banki które daja kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki pienięznej umowa pożyczki pienięznej kredyty chwilówki windykacja tychy warrus pożyczki kontakt oddziały kredyt banku w poznaniu pożyczki bez bik zgierz kredyt bank przelicznik walut kredyt studencki w pko opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe alior bank pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie duet pożyczki rzeszów kredyt gotówkowy bez bik i zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank warszawa gocław pożyczki 15000 pożyczki w inowrocławiu kredyty santander consumer bank odsetki od pożyczki podatek zaokrąglenia pożyczki dla zadłużonych kraków przedłużenie pożyczki vivus kredyt konsolidacyjny oplaca sie kredyty mieszkaniowe czy warto kredyt bez bik big krd komornik alior bank kredyt w rachunku bieżącym pożyczki pozabankowe w legnicy pożyczki gotówkowe dla lekarzy eurocash pożyczki chwilówki kredyt konsolidacyjny w getin banku koszty pożyczki w provident jaki kredyt bez bik w jakim banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy pozyczka bez bik w pko bp fotum mikropożyczki na założenie firmy kredyt bank 7 procent kredyt alior bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea oprocentowanie nowe pozyczki bez bik kara za niezgłoszenie pożyczki kredyty chwilówki jaworzno leopold pożyczki udzielane w domu kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury pożyczki pozabankowe w krakowie czy trudno dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt na samochód w credit agricole pożyczki bocian bez bik pcc od umowy pożyczki a kup skok wielkopolska pożyczki umowa pożyczki opłata pcc kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra podrobiona umowa pożyczki pożyczki krasnystaw kredyt bank piła adres kredyt samochodowy deutsche bank kalkulator pożyczki na dowód w domu klienta kredyt bank dzierżoniów godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki toruń kontakt kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kielce pożyczki kredyty w domu klienta wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pracy kredyt w banku pocztowym dokumenty kredyt bank regulamin ekstrakonto kredyt hipoteczny dla rolników bez zaświadczeń prodomo pożyczki podlaskie kredyty bez bik lodz kredyt w barclays przez internet udziele pożyczki prywatnie kraków umowa pożyczki osób prywatnych pożyczki w domu klienta radom pożyczki cent pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu kredyt bank biłgoraj kredyt bank glowna siedziba pożyczki z nigerii szybkie pożyczki bez bik białystok kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania bik forum pożyczki pod zastaw słubice umowa pożyczki poświadczona notarialnie chwilówki kredyty gotówkowe kredyt bank matejki szczecin pożyczki chwilówki kredyty pożyczki chwilówki bez big kredyt studencki pko bp potrzebne dokumenty banki udzielajace kredytu wspolnotom poszukuję pożyczki pozabankowej pożyczki gorzów wlkp kredyt w banku polskim kredyt bank handlowy pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez big pożyczki pod zastaw kwidzyn kredyt na mieszkanie w banku spółdzielczym wzory umowy pożyczki pieniężnej toyota bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator kredyt bank warszawa wawelska łatwy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobote pożyczki bank pocztowy kredyt bank archiwalne kursy walut kredyt bank dusznicki opinie kredyt pozabankowe online aktulany spis pozyczek dla zadluzonych kredyt bank oleśnica pozyczki gros leszno pozyczka w domu klients czechowice feniks słupsk kredyty istota pożyczki advice financial pożyczki w pewnym banku zaciagamy kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny w parabankach kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń kłodzko kredyt bank wieluń godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa szczecin kredyt bank lokata 10 wyłudzenie pożyczki w providencie kredyt konsolidacyjny do 100 wartości nieruchomości umowa pożyczki osoby fizyczne pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach kredyt bank w leżajsku pozyczka bez bik boleslawiec kredyt samochodowy idea bank opinie kredyty parkmar w kt kredyt mieszkaniowy na wykup mieszkania komunalnego pożyczki konsolidacyjne pozabankowe ketrzyn umowa pożyczki zakładowej kredyty konsolidacyjne kielce kredyt bank warszawa arkadia pożyczki za gierka w ktorym banku wziasc kredyt kredyty pożyczki bez bik na oświadczenie kredyty bez bik oddłużeniowe współpraca dpg pożyczki banki udzielające pożyczki banki kredyty mieszkaniowe zdolność kredytowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt bankowy inwestycyjny banki kredyty online boś bank kredyt na mieszkanie bank spółdzielczy kredyt na mieszkanie 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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad