kredyt bank wypłaty bez prowizji pozyczki prywatne cywilno prawne na 30000 olesnica kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie pożyczki gotówkowe w rodzinie kredyt bank mokotowska 49 warszawa optima pożyczki śląsk pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz kredyty chwilówki płock opinie walbrzych pozyczka w domu alior bank kredyty konsolidacyjne pożyczki na dowód krosno kredyt online idea bank tytuł przelewu pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe niskie oprocentowanie kredyt bank nieprawidłowy identyfikator lub pin kredyt bank rachunki bankowe przeterminowanie pożyczki gdzie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik umowa pożyczki na rzecz spółki umowa pożyczki od brata kiedy kredyt bankowy jest przedawniony kredyt bank przewalutowanie kredyty konsolidacyjne olsztyn kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik forum pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik i zaswiadczen pożyczki bez bik szamotuły kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki od 18 lat kredyt samochodowy bre bank kredyt bank centrala lublin kontakt kredyty chwilówki warszawa opinie dobry kredyt bez bik opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro opinie kredyt samochodowy dla emerytów kredyt konsolidacyjny skok wesola pożyczki z funduszy unijnych pożyczki ultimo getin bank wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy forum kredyt konsolidacyjny w skok jaworzno pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i krd kredyt bank sa lublin pożyczki minicredit kredyt jako podstawowy produkt bankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny symulacja rat duze pozyczki pod weksel kredyt studencki forum opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny open finance bank pekao sa pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki z małym dochodem kredyty bez bik wadowice kredyt konsolidacyjny w kb pko bank polski kredyt kalkulator kredyty bez bik big komornik konsolidacja pożyczki 48h bocian pożyczki bez bik kredyt bez bik oława kredyt bankowy ze złym bikiem kredyt bank euro kurs pożyczki prywatne gumtree plus kasa pożyczki umowa pożyczki zabezpieczona wekslem wzór kredyt bank w rawiczu pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i krd kredyt bank piła plac konstytucji kredyt w banku polskim kredyt chwilówka zarobki kredyt bez biku tychy pożyczki z biura pracy kredyt studencki wbk kredyt bank tychy kontakt pożyczki lubartów kredyt bank iv oddział warszawa otrzymanie pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyt bank produkty strukturyzowane pożyczki pozabankowe oferty kredyt bank ken 57 warszawa pożyczki z europejskiego banku inwestycyjnego kredyt w banku pko pożyczki do domu płock kredyty konsolidacyjne lodz kredyty bez bik częstochowa pożyczki gotówkowe w irlandii pożyczki lukas elbląg kredyt mieszkaniowy praca za granica kredyt samochodowy lukas bank kalkulator kredyt w pko bp forum pożyczki gotówkowe finan oprocentowanie kredytu konsolidacyjnego pko bp kredyt chwilowka kredyt bank łódź zgierska 42a kredyt konsolidacyjny jakie zarobki umowa pożyczki bank kredyt bez bik 5000 wrocław kredyt odnawialny bez biku pożyczki włodawa umowy pożyczki od rodziny wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny raty gros kapitał pożyczki opinie zwrot pożyczki urząd skarbowy pozyczki bez umowy o prace pożyczki do 50000 kredyt w banku zachodnim kalkulator pożyczki od rodziny pożyczki prywatne kujawsko pomorskie pożyczki na dowód tarnów kredyt bank wrocław legnicka godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki wymagania skarabeusz pozyczki pozabankowe lubin umowa podporządkowania pożyczki pożyczka na sam dowód bez przelewania pieniazków pożyczki dla jednostek samorządu terytorialnego kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b kontakt umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki księgowanie kredyt samochodowy alior bank kredyt bank placówki warszawa śródmieście pożyczki prywatne bydgoszcz kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 000 karencja pożyczki pożyczki dla osób zadłużonych kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 tys kredyt bank warszawa bonifacego kredyt konsolidacyjny getin kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń pożyczki bez bik bank pod jaki numer wziasc kredyt w orange bgk kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank w gorlicach kredyty bankowe dla firm pożyczki bezzwrotne dla mikrofirm kredyt bank gniezno godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne na weksel wzór na obliczenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej pożyczki online pierwsza za darmo pożyczki w skoku forum wzór na obliczenie raty pożyczki kredyt samochodowy bez sprawdzania w biku kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń 2013 kredyt bank gora kalwaria kredyt bank w ciechanowie lokaty umowa pożyczki odstąpienie przedawnienie umowy pożyczki bankowej odsetki od pożyczki cypr kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym opinie kredyt bank plac zbawiciela godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe ruda śląska ewidencja księgowa umorzenia pożyczki pcc od umowy pożyczki z udziałowcem pożyczki pozabankowe głogów pożyczki dla zadłużonych i z komornikiem kredyty chwilówki ostrowiec św kalkulator rat pożyczki kredyty konsolidacyjne ranking 2012 kredyt bank sokółka telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny i dodatkowa gotówka kredyt bank numer kontaktowy kredyt mieszkaniowy pko kalkulator kredyt pozabankowy 10 tys kredyt pozabankowe aig bank polska sa kredyt kredyt bank braniewo pożyczki chwilówki szczecin kredyt bank centrum obsługi klienta pożyczki bez bik dla zadłużonych pożyczki kredyty dla rolników pożyczki bez biku i zaświadczeń kredyt bez bik dla firm forum wysokie pożyczki na dowód kredyt bez bik i krd kraków kredyty bez bik szamotuły kredyt bank piekary śląskie godziny otwarcia trzebinia pozyczki kosciuszki pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank pocztowy kredyty do firm parabanki kredyt mieszkaniowy w alior banku pożyczki na działalność gospodarczą kredyt bank piotrków kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe opinie umowa pożyczki szablon umowa pożyczki w firmie alior bank kredyt oblicz rate kredyty bez bik bolesławiec kredyty chwilówki giszowiec odsetki od udzielonej pożyczki a przychód najtańsze pożyczki bankowe kredyt bank bednarska kredyt bank w międzyzdrojach kredyt pozabankowy łódź kredyt studencki zasady przyznawania pożyczki bankowe na oświadczenie pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem online umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki a vat szybkie pożyczki we wrocławiu pożyczki dla zadłużonych gdynia optima szybkie pożyczki jak umorzyc pozyczki pozabankowe szybkie kredyty bez bik i krd pożyczki bez baz przez internet pożyczki chwilówki co to jest umowa pożyczki forma pisemna pożyczki dla firm jeremie kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń bocian pożyczki podobne pozyczki pozabankowe prywatne uk kredyt bank opłaty kredyt bez bik nowa sól kredyt samochodowy santander kredyt bank piaseczno godz otwarcia kredyt bez biku kraków umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu prawo umowa pożyczki pomiedzy osobami fizycznymi kredyt bez biku łódź pożyczki międzychód kredyt mikro bik pożyczki gotówkowe dla studentów pożyczka z obsługą w domu warszawa pożyczki wieloratalne bez bik pożyczka typu provident kredyt w skok stefczyka alior bank kredyt na start kredyty chwilówki bez bik kredyt bez bik banki pt pożyczki pożyczki pomostowe kredyt chwilówka spłata pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik przez internet czy istnieje jeszcze mennica pozyczki w jeleniej gorze kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet chwilowki legnica jak wziasc kredyt kredyt bank warszawa praga kredyt mieszkaniowy najniższe oprocentowanie odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs wzór kredyt bez bik co to znaczy kredyt bank garibaldiego godziny otwarcia bank pożyczki na dowód getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny dodatkowa gotówka kredyt bez bik żary pożyczki pozabankowe pruszków pożyczka w domu klienta wzory umów pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank częstochowa al nmp kredyt bez biku zachodniopomorskie pożyczki krótkoterminowe definicja kredyt samochodowy w mbanku opinie pożyczki w kc kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bgz umowa pożyczki dla pracownika ze środków obrotowych pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska kredyt studencki pko oprocentowanie pożyczki środa wlkp pożyczka z obsługą w domu warszawa pozyczka na umowe cywilno prawna czestochowa umowa pożyczki wzór do pobrania praca dodatkowa pożyczki szybkie pozyczki pieniezne w irlandii umorzenie pożyczki podatek dochodowy od osób prawnych kredyty bez bik i krd olsztyn szybka pożyczka bez erif czy idea bank da kredyt zadluzonym opinie kredyt bank rating kredyt mieszkaniowy porównanie ofert banków wypowiedzenie kredytu credit agricole ewidencja księgowa pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt dla nowych firm bez bik abis szybkie pozyczki gotowkowe numer kontaktowy pożyczki bankowe kalkulator kredyt bez bik 5 tys żyrafa pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny długoterminowy pożyczki konsolidacyjne wymagalność pożyczki oblicz kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt mieszkaniowy harmonogram spłat kredyty chwilówki sucha beskidzka kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt bank kredyt bez bik eurobank gdzie można dostać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyt opinie odsetki od pożyczki od udziałowca księgowanie credit agricole pożyczki opinie kredyt bank sokółka kontakt eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank pocztowy opinie kredyt bank monit pożyczki pod zastaw toruń pożyczki bez meldunku chwilówka stargard pożyczki pozabankowe środa wlkp pożyczki natychmiast bocian pożyczki podkarpacie kredyt w irlandii bank of ireland kredyt bank bielsko sixta kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla kogo kredyt bez bik olkusz w ktorym banku najtanszy kredyt pożyczki advice kredyt bank pulawska 303 kredyt prywatny świdnica kredyty bez bik pożyczki szczecin termin przedawnienia roszczeń z umowy pożyczki windykacja pożyczki z zfśs kalkulator pożyczki polbank kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku millennium szybki kredyt bez zaświadczeń i bez bik bocian pozyczki zywiec kontakt assa pożyczki kredyt w getin banku bez bik tanie pożyczki internetowe pożyczki bez sprawdzania krd kredyt bank rejtana rzeszów alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny toruń kredyt dla firmy bez biku kredyt konsolidacyjny provident wypowiedzenie umowy pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank śródmieście kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe oprocentowanie 2013 kredyty bankowe ppt kredyt bank franczyza pożyczki gotówkowe koszalin pożyczki chwilówki artykuł gdzie w bydgoszczy dostane pozyczke na dowod bank pko kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyt bank zory godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki kalkulator rat pożyczki payu ranking banków w polsce kredyt kredyt bank karta kredytowa oprocentowanie pożyczki pierwsza pożyczka za darmo kredyt bez bik jaki bank kredyty i pożyczki krótkoterminowe w bilansie kredyt na dowód bez zaświadczeń kredyt mieszkaniowy dla osób samotnych formularz pożyczki wzór udziele pożyczki prywatnej szybko bez sprawdzania kredyt bank bz wbk kredyt bank pozyczka spłata pożyczki przychód getin bank kredyt przez internet kredyt w orange 5 zl czy kredyty chwilowki sprawdzaja bik i krd w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt optima pożyczki zawiercie kredyt w banku hsbc uk kredyt bank pułtusk kontakt pozyczki marka paslek kredyty chwilówki boguszowice kredyt na dowód mbank kredyty chwilówki praca tychy kredyt bank rzeszów rejtana godziny otwarcia pożyczki włocławek bez bik kredyt bank plock wyszogrodzka druk zgłoszenia pożyczki do us kredyt bank łączy się czy od pożyczki bankowej płaci się podatek nazwa pożyczki udzielonej przez bank kredyt odnawialny pko obligacja pożyczki dolarowej kredyt bank przelewy wychodzące godziny lukas bank kredyt online kredyt bank zaswiadczenie abis wniosek o kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem kredyty gotówkowe bez bik przez internet kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki trójmiasto kredyty mieszkaniowe rynek wtórny kredyt bank komentarze kredyt pelikan z bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach pożyczki chwilówki jaworzno pozyczki victoria regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs odsetki od pożyczki otrzymanej pożyczki bez bik rzeszów wzór umowy pożyczki z zastawem getin bank kalkulator zdolności kredytowej konto pożyczki długoterminowe bocian pożyczki jakie dokumenty potrzebne kredyty sms bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny we frankach kredyty chwilówki szczecinek kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b pożyczki pod weksel śląsk pokwitowanie pożyczki kredyt dla firm w mbanku konsolidacja zabezpieczona kredyty samochodowe bank pocztowy kredyt bank sa warszawa ul kasprzaka 2 8 pożyczki sms owe pozyczki na oswiadczenie ichwilowki kredyt bank problem z bankomatem feniks pożyczki opinie najlepsze banki po duzy kredyt pożyczki polskie oddziały kredyt banku we wrocławiu pożyczka bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kutno kredyt bank w skierniewicach pożyczki oddłużeniowe łódź udzielenie pożyczki udziałowcowi kredyt bank wbk połączenie godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w rzeszowie dotacje unijne pożyczki nfośigw pożyczki preferencyjne scarabeusz pozyczki piotrkow jak udzielać pożyczki pożyczki żary kredyt bank gliwice dworcowa banknot pożyczki łódź alior bank kredyt na pit z zajęciem kredytowym raciborz pozyczka pod weksel kredyty chwilówki skoczów oferta kredytową firmy optima bardzo szybkie kredyty bez bik kredyt chwilówka jastrzebie pozyczki pozabankowe na alimenty bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki na dowód warszawa kredyt bank departament prawny pożyczki bez bik iława pożyczki pozabankowe forum dyskusyjne zwrot pożyczki ang kredyt bank csv pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik big i krd potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pracownika kredyt bank ostrołęka godziny pracy prywatne pozyczki chwilowki warszawa pożyczki brodnica kredyt bank kod pożyczki prywatne ostrowiec odsetki od pożyczki gofin bocian pożyczki grudziądz szybkie pożyczki krotoszyn kredyty chwilówki opinie klientów kredyt bank hasło kredyty ratalne banki pożyczki pozabankowe na dowód warszawa pozyczka w pko praca zagranica kredyt mieszkaniowy 150 tys rata kredyt na dowod do reki bez dochodow gryfino premium pożyczki spółka akcyjna kredyt bank rachunek firmowy kredyt samochodowy bez bik zus us pożyczki pozabankowe wejherowo kredyt w banku jaki procent kredyt mieszkaniowy pracujac za granica umowa pożyczki raty wzór umowa pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt pozabankowy konsolidacyjny jakie banki udzielają kredytów bez bik mikropożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności pożyczki bez biku włocławek kredyt bank zielonka telefon raport pożyczki bocian pożyczki praca łódź szybki kredyt przez internet bez bik umowa pożyczki pieniędzy od rodziny pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami powiązanymi kredyt bank lokaty marzec 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyt opinie cechy pożyczki umowa pożyczki lombardowej wzór banki kredyty dla firm kwituję odbiór pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw olsztyn oprocentowanie pożyczki od udziałowca 2012 pożyczki społecznościowe chwilówki kredyt bez bik walbrzych kredyt gotówkowy w banku bph wyłudzali pożyczki pożyczki bez infomonitora pożyczki pozabankowe biała podlaska repudiacja pożyczki pożyczki 2014 umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kredyty samochodowe bank pocztowy pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu pożyczki chwilówki leszno pozyczki prywatne na weksel kredyt bank wykupiony szukam szybkiej pożyczki kredyt bank augustów kontakt pożyczka chwilówka konin pozyczki do domu czestochowa kredyt pozabankowy inowrocław kredyt bank matejki gorzów kredyt bank otwock karczewska pożyczki bez bik i krd na dowód kredyt bank warszawa radość optima pożyczki kalkulator pożyczki dom finansowy pożyczki chwilówki wałcz kredyt w rachunku bank pocztowy kredyt bank łódź piłsudskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez historii kredytowej pożyczki bez bik optima kredyt bankowy długoterminowy umowa pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wzór pożyczki konsolidacyjne pko

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad