mikropożyczki wielkopolska kredyty chwilówki bochnia kredyt bank jana pawła stara miłosna kredyty bankowe księgarnia kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt bank rabaty pożyczki pozabankowe bełchatów kredyt mieszkaniowy program kredyt bank cash4you pożyczki łobez wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt samochodowy ing kalkulator pożyczki oddłużające kredyty pozabankowe dla firm bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw olsztyn pożyczki prywatne łomża przeniesienie pożyczki pożyczki radom godziny otwarcia kredyt banku w ostrołęce kredyt bank w ciechanowie kredyt bank radomsko telefon kredyt konsolidacyjny santander pożyczki rodzaje kredyt w banku gbs kredyt bank pko bp kalkulator kredyty plock bocian pozyczki do 15000 anglia kredyty pozabankowe kraków kredyt bank krakowska kredyty chwilówki gredan prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe gdańsk kredyty chwilówki nysa wartość bilansowa pożyczki kredyt bankowy w księgach rachunkowych kredyt bez bik 10 000 kredyt bank sa białystok ul warszawska pożyczki olsztyn pieniężnego kredyty chwilówki bez zdolności kredyt bez bik do 30 tys kredyty chwilówki a knf sprawdzone pożyczki pozabankowe forum odsetki karne od pożyczki kredyty bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki dla instytucji kultury poręczenie pożyczki w pracy pożyczki prywatne dąbrowa górnicza odsetki karne umowa pożyczki z tytułu pożyczki kredyt bez bik w pile kredyt bank kapelanka kraków godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki gotówki wzór vivus przedłużenie pożyczki kredyt bez bik iz komornikiem przez internet pożyczka od rodziny a decyzja kredytowa umowa pożyczki wzór pieniędzy przedmiotem pożyczki mogą być kredyt bank warszawa bankomaty bocian pożyczki szybkie pożyczki online bez bik pożyczki bez biku zielona góra sms365 przedłużenie pożyczki podżyrowanie pożyczki kredyt bank placowki w gdansku kredyt pod zastaw samochodu bez bik 1000 zl pożyczki lublin pożyczki przez internet bez bik krd pozyczka pko 5000 zl kredyt samochodowy w toyota bank opinie kredyt studencki pko czy pekao pożyczki online 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lubań bank pekao sa kredyt dla firm dobranie w takto pozyczka kredyt 1000 pozyczki prywatne w bialymstoku umowa pożyczki zgłoszenie do us kredyt bank prabuty umowa pożyczki cel kredyt samochodowy bez bik dla nowych firm kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy opinie kredyt bankowy a pozyczka toyota bank kredyt samochodowy opinie promocyjne pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i krd konin jak dostać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank rachunki kredyt konsolidacyjny lublin bocian pożyczki kontakt warszawa ei global pożyczki pożyczki z biura pracy pożyczki pozabankowe na pit finan pożyczki kontakt kredyt bank zastrzeganie kart pożyczki gross toruń kredyt bank wirtualna karta kredytowa bocian pożyczki oborniki cash machine pożyczki kredyt studencki bank pekao bp pożyczka pozabankowa do20tys kredyt bank płock kolegialna godziny otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe w londynie kredyt rodzina na swoim w getin banku forum podatek pcc od pożyczki udziałowca kredyt bank koszt przelewu pożyczki chwilówki na dowód katowice pożyczki lębork pożyczki chwilówki bez bik big krd kredyt bank wieliczka telefon kredyt bank chałubińskiego gdańsk kredyty mieszkaniowe najniższe oprocentowanie ewidencja księgowa otrzymanej pożyczki kredyt banki 24 kredyt bez bik w krakowie kredyt bank marza pożyczki dla ludzi bez dochodów pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności umowy pożyczki od rodziny wzór kredyty bez bik i bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank mokotowska 49 kredyty bez bik krd katowice kredyt na dom a umowa na czas określony pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyt odnawialny w banku śląskim kredyt w banku bph opinie kredyt bankowy a koszty uzyskania przychodu kalkulator kredytowy jelenia góra banki kredyt bank w lublinie ul krakowskie przedmieście pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 alior bank kredyt warunki lokata rentierska kredyt bank opinie pro domo pozyczki ile trzeba oddac konsolidacja bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bez bik racibórz pożyczki chełmno kredyt bank wrocław telefon kredyty chwilówki sanok getin 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pożyczki pod zastaw kraków kredyty mieszkaniowe współpraca pożyczki ostróda kredyty bez biku poznań pożyczki prywatne jaworzno pożyczki bez bik rumia kredyt bank oprocentowanie lokat 2013 kredyt bank dietla godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki spłata bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty pożyczki nowa ruda bocian numer kredyt bank warszawa ursynów godziny otwarcia kredyt pozabankowy bez biku kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki uzyskania pożyczki bez sprawdzania w krd kredyt bank karty zbliżeniowe optima pożyczki katowice w jakim banku wziac kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki do 100 zł kredyty chwilówki przez sms umowa udzielenia pożyczki kredyt bank warszawa centrum godziny otwarcia w jakim banku opłaca się wziąć kredyt gotówkowy pożyczki literatura kredyt studencki oprocentowanie 2011 profesjonalna umowa pożyczki szukam pożyczki prywatnej pod zastaw kredyt bank kraków godziny otwarcia eurofin pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw tychy kredyty chwilówki bytom kredyt bez bik w płocku pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod zastaw pożyczki konsularne pożyczki dla firm opole kredyt w uk na dom umorzenie pożyczki przez gminę pożyczki oddłużeniowe z komornikiem pomocne pożyczki opinie ekspreskasa pożyczka na dowód umowa pożyczki skok stefczyka kredyty bez biku gorzow wlkp potrzebna pozyczka opole pożyczki bez krs kredyt konsolidacyjny bez sprawdzania bik pozyczka za zastaw auta zagranicznego klodzko lokata kredyt banku 6 5 kredyt konsolidacyjny na oświadczenie o dochodach kredyt do orange na jaki numer kredyty chwilówki kedzierzyn pożyczki bezzwrotne kredyt bank karier w jakim banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt bank zarobki 2011 pożyczki filarum kredyt bank w bialej podlaskiej pożyczki inowrocław niski procent pozyczka onlain lubuskie kredyty chwilówki wrocław pozyczki na oświadczenie w ostrów mazowiecka kredyt bankowy przez internet kredyt bank włoclawek pożyczki bez bik amber gold sesje przelewów w kredyt banku gdzie wziac kredyt kielce pozyczki na dowód kraków pwr pożyczki umowa pożyczki obowiązki stron profi credit pożyczki bez bik jak wziąć kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki bez biku tarnów kredyt bank wypłata gotówki pożyczki na dowód zduńska wola pożyczki prywatne zdunska wola kalkulator pożyczki bgż kredyt bank sa olsztyn udzielenie pożyczki ang pożyczki dla zadłużonych pozabankowe kredyt do orange pop definicja pożyczki pieniężnej kredyty chwilówka jelenia góra kredyt bez bik debica kredyt bankowy książki pdf kredyt bank w luboniu godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki druk darmowy kredyty chwilowki wloclawek kredyty chwilówki żyrafa pożyczki dla zadłużonych poznań kangurek pożyczki kredyty banku bph kredyt od 18 lat bez zaświadczeń online pożyczki gotówkowe banki kredyt bank nowy sącz jagiellońska kredyt bank prezentacja kredyt bank placówki warszawa mokotów kredyt techniczny banku centralnego banknot pozyczki wysokie pożyczki prywatne rzeszów pożyczki bez bik do 5 tys kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp sa spłata kredytu studenckiego w pko wzór umowy pożyczki 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kredytowej pożyczki augustów bocian pożyczki katowice umowa pożyczki profi credit kredyt dla firm bez zaświadczeń forum oprocentowanie kredytu w millenium bank bankomaty kredyt banku kraków pozyczki przelewy bez bik kredyt bank żeromskiego tel kredyty pozabankowe zgorzelec kredyt bank kapitał pożyczki łomża kredyt bez biku z komornikiem bilans pożyczki udzielone kredyt bank górczewska 200 godziny otwarcia bocian pożyczki alior bank kredyt bez bik kredyt bank hr bocian pożyczki online bocian pożyczki wniosek kredyty studenckie mbank kredyty banków spółdzielczych sgb kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank oprocentowanie jak wyrobić kartę kredytową bez zgody rodziców kredyt pleszew bez biku pożyczki na dowód szczecin optima pożyczki ełk kredyt bank logowanie firma kredyt bank wibor kredyt mieszkaniowy dublin pożyczki bez bik gdynia pożyczki przez internet lista firm umowa pożyczki jakie opłaty idea bank kredyt dla firm forum kredyty konsolidacyjne gliwice santander consumer bank kredyt bez bik kredyt bez biku kontakt kredytypożyczki oddłużenia śląskie kredyt samochodowy jaki bank wybrać kredyty gotówkowe w banku pko sa pożyczki prywatni inwestorzy kredyt bez bik nowa sól umowa pożyczki z dzieckiem pożyczka na procent udzielenie pożyczki księgowanie umowa pożyczki bank umowa pożyczki banku oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank bph kredyt bank wojska polskiego szczecin kredyt bank franciszkanska warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator kredytowy www banki daja pozyczke na dowód umowa pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca wzór kredyty pozabankowe definicja pożyczki od osób prywatnych częstochowa kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim wbk banki udzielające kredyt bez bik faktor pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny plock kredyt obrotowy w getin banku kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt bank umowa pożyczki provident pdf pko bp kredyt studencki oświadczenie poręczyciela pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości gdynia kredyt na mieszkanie oferty banków kredyt bank raty mikropożyczki wiki kredyt w banku na biznes umowa pożyczki ojciec syn lokata w kredyt banku 6 5 kredyt chwilówka klodzko kredyt bank lezajsk żyrafa pożyczki chwilówki opinie pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt konsolidacyjny w bph opinie kredyt bank kariera w jakim banku wziac kredyt studencki kredyt bank zagiel kredyt balonowy santander bank 50 50 kredyt bank kędzierzyn kredyt konsolidacyjny na dokończenie budowy domu kredyt bank opinie poręczenie pożyczki z urzędu pracy kredyty chwilówki koscierzyna karta kredytowa deutsche a bik mikropożyczki kapitał ludzki szukam pożyczki prywatnej forum kredyt bank ii oddział warszawa kredyt chwilówka dla zadłużonych kredyty bez bik chojnice pożyczki w ostrołęce pożyczki kodeks cywilny pożyczki na dowód wałbrzych kredyt bank oddział w nowym sączu alior bank kredyt przez telefon kredyt bez bik widruszow pozyczka na umowe zlecenie bez bik tychy kredyty pozabankowe bez bik warszawa bajecznej pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny co potrzebne pożyczki bezprocentowe dla firm Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

Quebec French Sayings -2

Quebec French Sayings -3

Quebec French Sayings - 5

Quebec French Sayings & Words - 6

 

For readers interested in French, there is a great deal of material on my website about Quebec French. Just click below to begin.

 

 

         Acadian Word Pages on This Website

A New Origin of Place Name Acadia

More Acadian French Food Words

Boucane: Cajun Word for "smoke"

Chiard: Acadian Food

Jaser: Acadian 'to blab, to talk a lot'

Acadian Poutine

Chenail/Snye: Acadian Word

More Acadian Words Explained in English

 

 

 

Bibliography of my works published in book form

 

 

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

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About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

                Funny Canadian Sayings / Quebec Sayings / Canadian Words

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad