kredyt bank lease kredyt bank stalowa wola kontakt kredyt na kupno samochodu bez bik pożyczki spłacane tygodniowo częstochowa pożyczki bez bik jastrzębie zdrój kredyt dla firm bez bik big getink bank krasnik kredyt dla firm kredyt konsolidacyjny słownik ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing kredyty bez bik sandomierz pozyczki dla zadłuzonych stargard adres telefon kredyty bez bik lomza umorzenie pożyczki z pup kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym kalkulator kredyt bank międzyrzec podlaski godziny otwarcia kredyt mieszkaniowy pozabankowy pożyczki bez bik łomża kredyty chwilówki biznes ubezpieczenie pożyczki jaki jest kod na wzięcie kredytu w orange kredyty parkmar w kt umowa pożyczki bankowej kredyt orange kredyt mieszkaniowy pracujac za granica pożyczki pozabankowa kredyt bank sanok chopina kredyty chwilówki rozdawanie ulotek kredyt bank piekary śląskie bocian pożyczki świnoujście pożyczki w amber gold kredyt w nordea bank pożyczki w skoku stefczyka kredyt bank bezprowizyjne bankomaty pożyczki bez biku toruń opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki osoby fizycznej pożyczki dla zadłużonych kalisz pozyczki bocian radom provident oferta pożyczki ranking kredytów samochodowych lipiec 2013 kredyty bez bik łódź umowa pożyczki bez daty zwrotu umowa pożyczki jak odzyskać pieniądze kredyt bank warszawa ul kondratowicza kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej ing umowa pożyczki miedzy firmami wzór pożyczki alior bank opinie cash pożyczki kredyt bank białogard druk umowa pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki z obsługa w domu pożyczki chwilówki lubań kredyt bank w gorlicach bip pożyczki warszawa kredyt bankowy w księgach jaki kod w orange na kredyt bocian pożyczki bełchatów kredyt bank łódz optima kredyty lubin prywatne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa preferencyjny kredyt studencki opinie cash pożyczki torun oprocentowanie pożyczki pracowniczej kredyt bez bik głogów pożyczki dla wolnych zawodów pożyczki na dowód w lublinie kredyt bez bik gniezno szybki kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik pożyczki bez bik bez dochodów kredyty bez bik szczecin kredyt w banku porównanie pożyczki dla bezrobotnych poznań pożyczki dla zadłużonych z komornikiem 2013 pożyczka bez baz 2014 kredyt samochodowy ranking luty 2014 kredyt chwilówki końskie kredyt bank 25 pożyczki przez internet dla firmy pożyczki z kruka pożyczki online opinie tax care pożyczki forum kredyt na start dla nowych firm bez bik zgorzelec pozyczka prywatna pożyczki na krótki termin kredyt bank łomianki godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik wrocław pożyczki z komornikiem kredyt bank powstancow warszawy oprocentowanie pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs umowa pożyczki zwrot w ratach konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zakładowy a pcc kredyt prywatny z komornikiem prodomo co to za pozyczki pożyczki osób fizycznych kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka 2 wzór umowy pożyczki osoby fizyczne kredyt bank marki w jakim banku wziac kredyt mieszkaniowy mikropożyczki dla bezrobotnych decyzja o umorzeniu pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2014 praca w bocianie pożyczki szybkie pożyczki panda umorzenie pożyczki po angielsku eurobank kredyt gotówkowy z bikiem jak księgować pożyczki kredyt w pszczolce inowroclaw kredyt w eurobanku opinie 2013 umowa kredytu bankowego kodeks cywilny pożyczki bez bik zawiercie pozyczka bez bik pod zabezpieczenie boleslawiec alfa kredyt ranking kredyt bank warszawa waszyngtona pożyczki ursynów kredyt konsolidacyjny z komornikiem prywatne pożyczki września kredyt preferencyjny banki pożyczki pozabankowe gostyń kraków pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank włoclawek kredyt pozabankowy słupsk kredyt studencki oferty banków pożyczki od osób prywatnych na procent 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy zmiany 2014 pożyczki z nfoś pożyczki na dowód choszczno pożyczki biłgoraj czy pozyczki activia sa bez biku pożyczki dla inwalidów kredyt bank sa tarnów pożyczki bezzwrotne dla nauczycieli umowa pożyczki nieważna kredyt bez bik krosno pożyczki komornicze pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń szczecin pożyczki chwilówki bielsko pożyczki gdańska 69 bydgoszcz kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku zachodnim wbk kredyt bank żagiel oddziały pożyczki w instytucjach pozabankowych kredyt w eurobanku kalkulator pożyczki radom wzory umowy umowa pożyczki pieniężnej kredyty bankowe szyguła kredyt bank sa oddział w słupsku getin noble bank kredyt konsumpcyjny kredyt konsolidacyjny raiffeisen bank udzielanie pożyczki z budżetu gminy domowa pożyczka bocian przejęcie kredytu przez firme pożyczki pozabankowe 30000 ubezpieczenie pożyczki w ergo hestia kredyt mdm banki kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator rat konsolidacja kredytu w mbank wnioski o kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczka na dowód w lesznie banki niezgłoszenie pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny skok chmielewskiego kredyt bank oferta dla wspólnot kredyt konsolidacyjny mbank kredyt bank warszawa ul kasprzaka 2 8 pozyczki bez bik i krd w domu klienta ruda slaska kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli w pko długoterminowe kredyty pozabankowe pożyczki na dowod mlawa pożyczki na weksel gdańsk kredyty chwilówki jakie odsetki pożyczki chwilówki na święta oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego w pko bp optima pożyczki oferty pracy kredyty chwilówki program partnerski kredyt bank warszawa srodmiescie pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny gdzie najlatwiej oprocentowanie pożyczki krótkoterminowej kredyt w banku barclays kredyt bank 2013 kredyt chwilówka w krakowie kredyt rodzina na swoim a umowa na czas określony pożyczki bez bik przez sms kredyt 1000 kredyty z zło zdolnoscio kredytowo bank pko bp kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt cetelem bank pożyczki pod zastaw księgowanie pożyczki z zfśs kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik swift adres kredyt bank koszalin pilsudskiego banki udzielające kredytów bez zdolności pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki pozabankowe świnoujście kredyt studencki bank slaski kredyty chwilówki wieluń praca kredyt bank augustów wzor umowy o kredyt wbk kredyt bank lublin tomasza zana instrumenty finansowe pożyczki podatek od pożyczki pienieżnej pożyczki pozabankowe chełmno cesja pożyczki a cienka kapitalizacja darmowe anonse pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator pko kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego lukas bank kredyt bank bialystok lipowa umowa pożyczki ściąga pożyczki społecznościowe pit pko bp kredyt studencki zaświadczenie kredyt studencki bank śląski pożyczki ekspresowe bocian kruk pożyczki gotówkowe prodomo pożyczki nowe mia kredyty bez bik wikipedia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez bik kredyt bank w mińsku mazowieckim przedawnienie pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt inwestycyjny getin bank opinie betgang pożyczka pożyczki chwilówki gostyń alior bank kredyt na oświadczenie kredyt bank żary kontakt kredyty chwilówki opole reymonta pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej pozyczki chwilowki jaslo siedziby kredyty bez bik pszczyna kredyt bank w warszawa kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko kredyt samochodowy dla firm ing pożyczki z windykacją umorzenie pożyczki z zfśś kredyt bank łączy się kredyt bank spółdzielczy forum kredyt bank krs pożyczki lombardowe pożyczki gros oblicz kredyt w credit agricole oprocentowanie kredytów w fm banku pożyczki do 5 tysięcy kredyty bez bik pruszków pożyczki prywatne dla firm kredyt bez bik mława pożyczki w domu klienta bytom pożyczki chwili kredyt bank wykaz bankomatów bez prowizji warunki dostania pożyczki kredyt bank wilanów pożyczki bez bik w toruniu pożyczki na paszport kredyt bez bik ostrołęka kredyty chwilówki bytów pożyczki społecznościowe w anglii pożyczki bez bik gostynin pożyczki na dowód skarabeusz kredyt konsumpcyjny prawo bankowe kredyt bank katowice kościuszki kredyty bez bik w warszawie kredyt chwilówka bez bik i krd kruk kredyty w puławach kredyty bez bik biała podlaska bocian pożyczki toruń pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo pożyczki na dowód bez bik poznań db kredyt deutsche bank pbc sa kredyt bank pila godziny otwarcia pożyczki warrus kredyt samochodowy w millenium bank kredyt bank zielonka szybkie pozyczki zlotoryja bez bik pozyczki dla polakow w anglii pożyczki prywatne pozabankowe warunki ubezpieczenia kredytu w getin bank pieniadz kredyt bankowy cykle koniunkturalne pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej szczecin umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi pożyczki prywatne dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank warszawa lokaty kredyt ratalny banki kredyt bank warszawa popularna godziny otwarcia kredyt chwilówka ile procent kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki bez bik świecie kredyt bank logowa kredyty chwilowki do 100 000 kredyt bank raty infolinia kredyt bez bik zywiec kredyty chwilówki olkusz kredyty konsolidacyjne na 10 lat getin bank pożyczki internetowa kredyt konsolidacyjny w niemczech zwrot pożyczki proz błyskawiczne pożyczki pozabankowe nadzabezpieczenie pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski pożyczki pozabankowe we włocławku kredyt studencki na mieszkanie lukas bank wydawnictwo zaciągnęło kredyt w banku na druk pożyczki prywatne gorzów pożyczki chwilówki piotrków trybunalski bocian pożyczki konin roszczenia z umowy pożyczki przedawniają się kredyt bank godziny otwarcia kraków getin bank kredyt 5000 pfron pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych kredyt samochodowy w getin banku kredyt bank piła sikorskiego skarbiec pożyczki oszustwo pożyczki buk umowa pożyczki podatek vat numer telefonu do banku o pożyczkę bez dochodów kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta kredyt samochodowy w banku bph druk umowy pożyczki pieniężnej kredyt bank chełm ul lwowska kredyty konsolidacyjne z komornikiem pożyczki kielce pożyczki przez internet bez przelewania grosza pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 kredyty konsolidacyjne z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt odnawialny w getin banku pożyczki bezzwrotne dla młodych rolników orange kredyt 5 zł kredyt dla studentów mbank pożyczki prywatne łódż kredyt bank lublin zana 38 d kredyt bez biku tychy kredyt bank bankomaty płock kredyty chwilówki procent kredyt bankowy książka oprocentowanie kredytów mieszkaniowych pko kredyty chwilówki ostrołęka pożyczki bez bik krd i zaświadczeń kredyt bank toruń ul grudziądzka kredyt bank 3 maja lublin szybki kredyt bez bik warszawa czy pcc od umowy pożyczki jest kosztem podatkowym umowa pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami wzór multibank kredyt samochodowy opinie forum pożyczki abc kredyt bank bielsko sixta konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bik i krd kredyt pozabankowy pod weksel kredyt bank gotówka w którym banku kredyt na dowód kredyt bank wałbrzych telefon pożyczki pozabankowe w kaliszu chwilówki poznań pożyczki poznań chwilówki mosina kredyt w przeźmierowie bocian pożyczki olsztyn kredyt bank remigiusz hołdys pożyczki online bez bik krd kredyt bank garibaldiego 4 darmowe bankomaty w kredyt banku kredyt samochodowy bank pko bp pożyczki na dowód forum kredyt bank bankomaty bez prowizji 2013 gwarant pożyczki bochnia kredyty chwilówki wrocław jedności kredyt w rozumieniu prawa bankowego kredyt bank spółdzielczy opinie rezygnacja z karty kredytowej kredyt bank wzór kredyty chwilówki chrzanów rynek szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe dla zadłużonych kredyt restrukturyzacyjny eurobank kredyty gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pozyczka bez biku na 20000 kredyty bez bik dąbrowa górnicza udzielam pozyczek do reki kontakt slask kredyt bank oświęcim godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank praca opinie pożyczki od osób prywatnych szczecin kredyt bank poleska kredyt konsolidacyjny ranking banków pożyczki gotówkowe gdzie najtaniej pozyczki z komornikiem sosnowiec kredyt bank numer konta kredyt bank żagiel nr telefonu kredyt bank w lubinie koszty odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bez bik w łodzi pożyczki pod zastaw działki rolnej kredyt bank wita stwosza kredyty na firme bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny skok chmielewskiego asper pożyczki toruń getin bank warunki udzielenia kredytu pożyczki ing gdzie można uzyskać kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik w jakim banku najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki z budżetu gminy kredyt bank kędzierzyn kredyt bank zabrze kontakt pożyczki gotówkowe gorzów kredyt bank janów kredyt bank groupon pożyczki chwilówki stalowa wola udowodnienie pożyczki pożyczki kórnik warunki kredytu w eurobanku pożyczki pozabankowe z obsługą w domu pozyczki bez dochodu przedłużenie spłaty pożyczki ekspres kasa pożyczki z up alior bank kredyt oblicz rate optima pożyczki do domu łódź kredyt samochodowy w fiat bank ubezpieczenie pożyczki mbank pożyczki bezzwrotne pożyczki gotówkowe bez poręczycieli pożyczki od osób prywatnych katowice pożyczki agricole udzielić pożyczki kudoz kredyt samochodowy getin bank kontakt pożyczki wg msr kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat pko kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pekao sa kredyt bank wrocław siedziba odsetki od pożyczki koszt uzyskania przychodu pożyczki chwilówki nowy tomyśl umowa pożyczki od wspólnika pcc kredyt bankowy wiem kredyt bank świdnica kontakt pcc od pożyczki udzielonej spółce przez udziałowca kredyt bank lublin kredyty bez biku gdańsk pozyczka bartek kredyt z idea banku opinie pożyczki pozabankowe uk firmy splacajace pozyczki niebankowe jastrzebie zdroj umowa pożyczki rejestracja w urzędzie skarbowym wyciągi w kredyt banku bocian pożyczki youtube pożyczki chwilówki bez meldunku bocian stargard pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki kredyt mieszkaniowy singiel na swoim kredyt bank o lublin żagiel w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty bez bik śrem pożyczki długoterminowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt bank rybnik 3 maja kredyt w credit agricole opinie lloyds kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania w polsce kredyt bank wypłata gotówki za granicą pożyczki marka pożyczki chwilówki chorzów centrum kredyt bank poczta elektroniczna kredyt bank kasprzaka alior bank kredyt firmowy kredyty bez biku iz komornikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny charakterystyka polskie pożyczki opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż opinie 2012 pożyczki domowe bocian ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych grudzień 2012 karr pożyczki mam kredyt w getin banku w jakim banku daja kredyt na dowód pozyczki prywatne jele gora nazwa pozyczki udzielonej przez bank kredyt bank otwock kontakt kredyty bankowe i pozabankowe kalwaryjska krakow kredyt bank działdowo w jakim banku wziąć kredyt 10000 pożyczki pozabankowe pod weksel bydgoszcz pożyczki tomaszów mazowiecki pożyczki bez bik i krd online pożyczki bez bik w płocku udzielę prywatnej pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki 10000 bez bik katowice umowy kredytowe w spółce komandytowej kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2013 kredyty chwilówki internet kredyt bez biku rzeszów kredyty bez bik elblag bankomaty kredyt bank łomża kredyt bankowy a kredyt kupiecki pro domo pozyczki grudziadz kredyt samochodowy paribas bank kredyt bank wrocław bolesława chrobrego kredyty chwilówki nysa kredyt bank kurs usd kredyty chwilówki szczecin krzywoustego pożyczki prywatne gorzów wlkp pożyczki prywatne od prywatnych inwestorów pożyczki dla porozumienia centrum kredyt konsolidacyjny boś kredyty mieszkaniowe w londynie ktory bank da kredyt bez bik kredyt studencki pko legitymacja po terminie kredyty bez bik łódzkie pożyczki pozabankowe w koszalinie kredyty pozabankowe z niska rata szybka pozyczka z dostawa do domu zywiec kredyt z komornikiem piekary sl na weksel szybkie pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyt bankowy podsumowanie pożyczki franczyza pożyczki prometeusz olsztyn pożyczki online w 15 minut

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad