oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki wzór kredyt bank łuków telefon pożyczki 30000 kredyt konsolidacyjny santander kalkulator kredyty bez bik i krd lodz pożyczki dla przedsiębiorców mazowieckie najtańszy kredyt samochodowy ranking kredyt bank gostyń wlkp pożyczki w lombardzie kredyt bank w białobrzegach pożyczki na dowód osobisty oferta pożyczki kredyty chwilówki wągrowiec kredyt konsolidacyjny w idea bank pożyczki od osób prywatnych wałbrzych kredyt bez bik w ing kredyt bank warka bocian pożyczki poczta czy kredyt bank jest czynny w soboty kredyt bank warszawa centrum pożyczki ranking banków kredyt studencki wbk pożyczki pod zastaw bełchatów udzielam pożyczki dłużnik nie oddaje pożyczki kredyt studencki pko przedluzenie kredyty chwilówki nr konta kredyt bank rzeszów kontakt kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro opinie pożyczki chwilówki łódź piotrkowska kredyt konsolidacyjny na oświadczenie o dochodach pozyczki publiczne zalety pozyczki do reki od 18lat w lesznie kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw kredyt pelikan z bik i krd kredyt konsolidacyjny open finance bocian pożyczki numer telefonu kredyt bank fuzja pracownicy kredyt konsolidacyjny fortis mikropożyczki kraków pożyczki gotówkowe dla lekarzy kredyt bank toruń ul grudziądzka kredyt bank profil spokojny pożyczki dla osób prowadzących działalność pozyczki dla beezrobotnych financial pożyczki pożyczki prywatne gdynia kredyty chwilówki ząbkowice śląskie santander bank kalkulator kredytu samochodowego kredyty chwilówki w olkuszu kredyt bez weryfikacji w biku pozyczki inne niz prowident szybkie i tanie pożyczki od ręki olsztyn kredyt bank 224 pożyczki piła pożyczki oddłużeniowe pozabankowe kredyty chwilówki międzyrzec podlaski kredyty chwilówki grójec kredyt bank w krotoszynie kredyt bank z siedzibą w warszawie kredyt bankowy a kupiecki umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmą a osobą fizyczną umowa pożyczki do spółki z oo andrzej śmiały pożyczki pożyczki na działalnosc kredyt bank wola warszawa kredyty chwilówki ostrołęka kredyt bank ostrów mazowiecka kontakt kredyt studencki bank pocztowy sigma bank kredyty bez poręczycieli bydgoszcz pożyczki na dowód ruda śląska ubezpieczenie pożyczki w ergo hestia rata pożyczki pozyczyki atiz gwarantowane pożyczki osobiste skarabeusz pożyczki kościan kredyt dla bedacych w bik katowice pożyczki gotówkowe płock umowa pożyczki osób fizycznych kredyt bank wykupiony bocian pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank zielona góra wojska polskiego kredyt bank call center forum pożyczki chwilówki stargard kredyt bank racibórz mickiewicza bocian pożyczki podobne kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń wzór pokwitowania spłaty pożyczki kredyt bank w rzeszowie godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki łódź plac wolności kredyt bank krasnystaw godziny pracy pożyczki w domu klienta legnica pożyczki długoterminowe bez zaświadczeń kredyt bez bik piaseczno kredyt konsolidacyjny w millenium włocławek pożyczki pod zastaw zasady dostania kredytu na dom w northern ireland kredyt pozabankowy na firmę kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy kredyt bank kredyt bank grójecka 45 godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne pod zastaw nieruchomości warszawa kredyt bank rzecznik prasowy prywatne pożyczki pod weksel pożyczki pozabankowe prywatne kredyt w ge money bank opinie kredyt bank lubawa bocian pożyczki raty kredyt dla zadłużonych bez bik i krd kredyt bank nysa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank targowa godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód ostrowiec pożyczki bezzwrotne dla małych firm kredyt studencki pko przedluzenie pożyczki bez bik zdunska wola pożyczki przez internet lista firm gdzie mozna dostac kredyt bez biku alior bank kredyt bez wychodzenia z domu santander kredyt ratalny a bik pożyczki profi credit umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej kredyt bank garibaldiego 4 pożyczki buk kredyt bank fundusz global partners pożyczki bocian szczecinek kredyt bank łuków telefon wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego pewny kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt bank fundusze notowania lloyds kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt studencki warunki uzyskania kredyty chwilówki w olkuszu umowa pożyczki i weksel kredyt bank łódz kredyty bez bik miedzyrzecz wzór umowy pożyczki z poręczeniem szybkie pożyczki współpraca kredyt bank w kolobrzegu feniks pożyczki olecko pozyczki bez meldunku warszawa kredyt pozyczka bez biku kredyt bank godzina otwarcia pożyczki gotówkowe suwałki wzór umowy pożyczki do pobrania kredyty chwilowki swidnica kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp forum pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw koszalin kredyt pozabankowe poznan kredyt bank sa address pożyczki gryfino ustna umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank jelenia góra ul wolności kredyt bank kraków wielicka pożyczki bez baz kraków chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki orzegów kredyty bez banku pożyczki 0 wycena otrzymanej pożyczki na dzień bilansowy alior bank kredyt dla rolników kredyt bank bytom pożyczki z parabanków pożyczki novum kruk s a pożyczki kredyty dla nowych firm kredyt budowlany w jakim banku kredyt bank historia rachunku kredyty chwilówki chełm kredyt bank opole sosnkowskiego kredyt mieszkaniowy na mieszkanie w kamienicy pożyczki takie jak provident kredyt bez bik lodz kredyt bez bik legnica kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf kapitalizacja pożyczki jaki kredyt konsolidacyjny wybrać promesa udzielenia pożyczki udzielilem pozyczki nieoprocentowanej pożyczki pod zastaw złota lublin kredyt bank wrocław legnicka godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik raty gdzie po kredyt bez bik kredyt bankowy w rachunku kredytowym pożyczki prywatne forum i opinie kredyt w uk jak dostac rzeszów kasa stefczyka kredyt na umowie zagranicznej kredyt bank ii oddział kraków kapelanka pożyczki darowizny pożyczki i należności własne kredyt bank wolczanska lodz kredyt konsolidacyjny skok piast umowa pożyczki cywilno prawna kredyt bank lokata terminowa econstans kredyt bank akcjonariusze kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik forum kredyt studencki pko bp umowa umowa pożyczki opodatkowanie odsetek pozyczka wierzyciel kredyt bank pochodzenie kredyt bez bik 10 000 kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy jakie warunki szybki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik oświadczenie o spłacie pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe puławy optima pożyczki kołobrzeg kredyt bank łódź godziny otwarcia kredyt bank stalowa wola kontakt pożyczki finanse pozyczka na weksel wlasny na slasku pożyczki gotówkowe na telefon kredyt bank tabela opłat i prowizji pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach przez internet kredyt getin bank opinie udzielić pożyczki english udziele prywatnej pozyczki krakow pożyczki gotówkowe w anglii pożyczki dla inwalidów kredyt bank w janowie lubelskim pożyczki olsztyn kredyt bank 1 maja płock skarabeusz pożyczki opinia pożyczki peer to peer kredyt bank wroclaw legnicka kredyt bank pruszcz gdański getin bank kredyt na mieszkanie umowa pożyczki z zakładem pracy lukas bank kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego pożyczki bez bik na rok w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy szybkie pożyczki do 2000 kredyt w aig bank kredyty chwilówki dębica kredyt bank zduńska wola kontakt pożyczki chwilówki bez erif pożyczki wewnątrzgrupowe kredyt bez bik i krd kredyt bank token zmiana telefonu pożyczki dla firm bez dochodu pożyczki dla zadłużonych i bezrobotnych na dowód kredyt bank lubelskie pożyczki bez bik wysoka przyznawalność kredyt bank przewalutowanie kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki zfśs kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku opinie duet pożyczki częstochowa wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z zakładu pracy pożyczki pozabankowe częstochowa kielce pożyczki bez bik pożyczki na innowacje pożyczki bez bik zus pożyczki prywatne września kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i krd pożyczki bez bik ostrowiec św kredyt bank strzegomska godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki bolesławiec import usług pożyczki tanie pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank warszawa chmielna meritum bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oprocentowanie umowa pożyczki pod zastaw auta wzór pożyczki 5000zl bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach mlawa kredyt mieszkaniowy plus remont umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bank sa lublin co to jest kredyt bez bik umorzenie pożyczki w spółce komandytowej kredyt konsolidacyjny provident pozyczki w domu dolny ślask getin bank kredyt konsolidacyjny oświadczenie pożyczki wzór pożyczki kredyty dla rolników kredyt bank krakowskie przedmieście pożyczki udzielane przez jst oddziały kredyt banku białystok pulawska kredyty chwilowki warszawa bez bik i krd kredyty bez bik w czestochowie kredyt bank wniosek o zamknięcie konta pożyczki do domu bocian kredyt bank przelew z karty kredytowej wzór umowy pożyczki na raty czy trudno dostać kredyt w banku pocztowym kredyt bank lokaty 6 5 kredyt bank w radlinie kredyt bank gdynia skwer godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne malbork kredyt na mieszkanie bank zachodni kredyt bank w bogatyni kredyty chwilówki aleksandrów kujawski kredyt bank sa ii oddział w poznaniu pożyczki 0 gdzie dostane kredyt bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z wekslem kredyt bank warszawa popularna w jakim banku wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy 2014 kredyt bank w pszowie udzielenie pożyczki a faktura vat pożyczki kaktus alior bank kredyt 5000 bocian pożyczki wejherowo kredyt bez sprawdzania biku kredyt na pit w credit agricole kredyty chwilówki bydgoszcz fordon pożyczki w krakowie na dowod kredyt gotowkowy bez zaswiadczen i do domu umowa pożyczki postępowanie upominawcze kredyty w uk dla polakow pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu warszawa oddziały kredyt banku w warszawie umowa pożyczki download pożyczki brzozów udzielenie pożyczki pracownikowi księgowanie kredyty konsolidacyjne plock pożyczki pozabankowe na telefon kredyt na dowód bez bik i krd bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie kredyt bank w zielonce kredyty chwilówki dzierżoniów maestro kontakt kredyt bank kredyty chwilówki żary kredyt bez bik piotrków tryb umorzenie pożyczki pracownikowi kredyt bank ul abrahama kredyt pozabankowy szybki pozyczka tygodniowka elbląg ewidencja pożyczki w walucie obcej kredyt bank góra kalwaria kredyt bank bednarska tani kredyt samochodowy ranking sprzedaż kredyt banku 2012 pożyczki takie jak provident pożyczki prywatne pod weksel śląsk szybkie pożyczki bez bik i big kredyt samochodowy ing oprocentowanie umorzenie kredytu studenckiego pko bp szybkie pożyczki kalisz pożyczki bez bik staszów umorzenie pożyczki a przychód bikuś pożyczki kredyt bank oddział lublin w jakim banku kredyt 20000 pożyczki optima bydgoszcz kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomosci ii fiz kredyt w bank bph opinie kredyt samochodowy bank spółdzielczy bank pekao sa kredyty kalkulator pożyczki w domu klienta pabianice szybkie pozyczki zlotoryja bez bik kredyt chwilówka kłodzko kredyt bank zablokowanie konta hortus pożyczki siedlce kredyty bez bik przez internet chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki godula pożyczki przez internet od 18 lat kredyty firmowe bez biku kredyty bez bik cała polska pko bp legnica kredyt studencki kredyt bank gdynia skwer godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik big erif kredyt konsolidacyjny doradca finansowy kredyt z banku na otwarcie działalności rata pożyczki gotówkowej kredyty bez biku grudziadz kredyt w banku pocztowym dla funkcjonariuszy pożyczki bez meldunku i dochodu stargard kredyt bank biała podlaska brzeska 21 kredyt bank kolejowa białystok kredyt bez bik ostrowiec księgowanie pożyczki z bgk pożyczki bez bik słubice lub omyła pożyczki warunki kredytu w banku wbk jaki numer na kredyt orange kredyt bankowy dla przedsiębiorców kredyt bez bik nowa sól pozyczki na dowod czechowice prywatne pożyczki w bilansie pozyczki z dojazdem do domu slupsk kredyt bank ostrobramska 101 godziny otwarcia pozyczka z obsluga w domu kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń słupsk kredyty bez bik jelenia góra pożyczki od osób prywatnych gdańsk pożyczki bez bik lubin kredyt bank oddział włocławek przedawnienie pożyczki gotówkowej dobry kredyt bez bik forum umowa pożyczki pieniędzy word kredyt bank w krosnie credit agricole klodzko druczek na kredyt pożyczki bez bik gostynin pozyczka pod zastaw agd w toruniu udzielenie pożyczki spółce przez członka zarządu kredyt bank wloclawek godziny otwarcia jak wziąć kredyt w banku spółdzielczym pożyczki chwilówki vivus kredyt bank oliwa kredyt konsolidacyjny meritum bank kredyt samochodowy dla firm porównanie kredyty bez bik w domu klienta kredyt bez bik i krd opinie umowa pożyczki nie stwierdzona pismem teleklient pożyczki kredyty chwilówki w tvn warszawa pożyczki prywatne pożyczki bankowe dla firm umowa spłaty pożyczki wzór pożyczki w domu klienta inowrocław szybkie pożyczki tczew potrzebuję pilnej komentarz kredytu klient maj 2014 kredyt bez biku w skoku jaki kredyt bez bik kredyt na pit bez biku pożyczki z anglii pożyczki chwilówki tarnobrzeg pożyczki dla osób z zajęciami komorniczymi bocian pożyczki świdnica kredyt bank tczew ul gdańska kredyty chwilówki zywiec ul dworcowa kredyt konsumpcyjny w kredyt banku duet pożyczki rzeszów pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń przez internet pożyczki dla niepracujących kredyt samochodowy w mbank opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz rate kredyt bank warszawa historia pożyczki notarialne umorzenie pożyczki dla syna rybnik pożyczki prywatne kredyt bez bik 20 tys wyludzenie pozyczki ekspresowej umowa pożyczki śmierć pożyczkobiorcy umowa pożyczki kto płaci pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny zagiel w jakim banku kredyt na mieszkanie forum kredyt studencki pko wniosek kredyty chwilówki jak założyć kalkulator kredyt gotówkowy alior bank pożyczki lubin pożyczki prywatne tarnobrzeg pożyczki pozabankowe cała polska pozyczki chwilowki gorzow wlkp kredyt bank koszalin piłsudskiego 85 pożyczki internautów kredyt studencki w jakim banku najlepiej księgowanie odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt bank aukcje poleasingowe pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi radom kredyt bank karpacz kredyt bez bik żary pożyczki pod zastaw warszawa bielany pożyczki długoterminowe tytuł przelewu pożyczki kredyty bez bik zywiec pożyczki bez biku i z komornikiem kredyt w getin bank kredyt rns getin bank opinie kredyt w banku w niemczech pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla nauczycieli ile kosztuje przelew zagraniczny w kredyt banku umowa pożyczki wzajemna kredyt pod zastaw bez bik kalkulator pożyczki w alior banku bezpieczny kredyt kredyt bez bik opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową umowy pożyczki od rodziny wzór marka pożyczki rzeszów błyskawiczne pożyczki online kredyt mieszkaniowy sierpień 2012 pożyczki ubezpieczone ustna umowa pożyczki a pcc odsetki od pożyczki przychód kredyt bank radzymińska godziny otwarcia kredyt w lukas banku wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe warunki otrzymania pożyczki pożyczki łódzkie banki kredyt online umowa pożyczki od siostry pozyczka bez bik pod zabezpieczenie boleslawiec umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami koszty uzyskania przychodu odsetki od pożyczki księgowanie spłaty pożyczki z zfśs w jakim banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt konsolidacyjny bank pko bp kredyty gotówkowe kredyt bank warszawa conrada getin bank kredyty samochodowe tel kredyt bank białystok ul warszawska kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego tel przyznawalnosc kredytu obrotowego w banku bps kredyt bank liczba placówek kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe walutowe kredyty chwilówki kraków wielopole pożyczki z komornikiem bez bik pozyczki słupsk 24 do 5 tyś słupsk pożyczki na dowód wrocław kredyt bez bik i krd zielona góra regulamin pożyczki mieszkaniowej z zfśs umowa pożyczki poręczenie kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 000 kredyt gotówkowy w santander bank kredyt bank wpłatomat warszawa

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad