kredyt bankowy książki kredyt studencki gospodarczy bank wielkopolski kredyt bank debet na koncie pozyczki pozabankowe z zajeciem komorniczym boleslawiec kredyt bank marki pozyczki na dowod w domu klienta krotoszyn i okolice duo pożyczki chwilówki santander kredyt na samochod w uk kredyty bez bik oswiecim pozyczki krosos windykacja kredyt bank rydułtowy kredyt bank jasło kontakt kredyty bankowe praca magisterska umowa pożyczki bez odsetek ubezpieczenie pożyczki gotówkowej pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie pożyczki pozabankowe łódż aviva pozyczki warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy 130 zmiana wysokości oprocentowania pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe gdzie najtaniej pożyczki ustawa pożyczki na dowód bez dochodów kredyty dla wspólnot mieszkaniowych forum pozyczki mikrokasa opinie pożyczki bez krd na dowód kredyt bank skoczów telefon umowa w sprawie pożyczki mieszkaniowej umowa pożyczki pieniędzy urząd skarbowy pożyczki oddłużeniowe wrocław kredyt bank kalisz górnośląska 50 pożyczki na projekty unijne pozyczki bez umowy o prace w człuchowie pożyczki na dowód tarnów udzielę pożyczki pod weksel 2013 kredyt bank namysłów kredyty chwilówki w bełchatowie w jakim banku wziac kredyt forum kredyt w provident utrata pracy pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy marża szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe online kredyt studencki ing bank śląski kredyt w banku a przedawnienie kredyt konsolidacyjny karta kredytowa kredyt bank polna termin przedawnienia umowy pożyczki pozyczki na oswiadczenia jak dzialja umowa pożyczki z cudzoziemcem pożyczki pod zastaw szczecin 24h wniosek o kredyt studencki pekao sa kredyt bez bik oprocentowanie kredyt bank grunwaldzka gdańsk pożyczki z komornikiem pod weksel kredyt bank konto internetowe pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki maluch kredyt bank kraków os kazimierzowskie godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw domu wzór umowy pożyczki osobie prywatnej kredyt studencki pko sa forum kredyt bank łańcut umowy pożyczki a podatek getin bank kredyty mieszkaniowe kredyt samochodowy a firma kredyty bez bik wielkopolska pożyczki pozabankowe puławy pożyczki pod zastaw tychy jaki kod na kredyt orange pożyczki prywatne długoterminowe pożyczki prywatne włocławek kredyty pozabankowe bank pko bp kredyt studencki kredyt bez biku jaki bank kredyt bez bik ruda śląska pożyczki bez bik radomsko pożyczki od osób prywatnych częstochowa kredyty mieszkaniowe kalkulator rodzina na swoim kredyt konsolidacyjny oblicz rate jak sprawdzic stan konta w kredyt banku przez internet pożyczki na nową firmę kredyt bank siedlce godz otwarcia kredyt bank program systematycznego oszczędzania kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku kontakt alior bank kredyt opinie 2000 pozyczki bez dowodu od zaraz tanie pożyczki online bocian pożyczki puławy pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank pszczyna telefon kredyt gotówkowy w banku pocztowym forum kredyty w deutsche banku kredyt konsolidacyjny chorzów kredyt bank kurs akcji kredyt bank w kwidzynie kredyt bank kod najniżej oprocentowane pożyczki pożyczki wałcz kredyt w banku bez poreczycieli wloclawek pożyczki udzielane w domu bank kredyt bez bik kredyt bank warszawa czynny w sobotę pożyczki bez bik z komornikiem slupsk ing bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator umowa pożyczki zawarta zagranicą w jakim banku można wziąć kredyt na dowód kredyt budowlany w jakim banku podatek od pożyczki udzielonej przez udziałowca oferty pożyczki prywatne kredyty mieszkaniowe w londynie bocian pożyczki przemyśl chce wziasc 15000 tysiecy kredytu w pko bp meritum pożyczki bez bik getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczenia kredyt bez bik i krd kraków pozyczki od osob rywatnych w zorach pożyczka 20000 w lesznie bez bik kredyt bank sosnowiec kontakt kredyt bank kołobrzeska pożyczki na telefon bez bik lublin kredyt orange jaki nr bocian pożyczki środa wlkp kredyty bez biku radlin partner pozyczki opinie koszalin bank bgż kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie kredyt bank pila sikorskiego kredyt w orange na karte 2 zł kredyt w banku na oswiadczenie kredyt samochodowy w banku millenium pożyczki finansowo kredyt bank sa lublin kredyt samochodowy ranking listopad 2013 małgorzata iwańska pożyczki opinie pożyczki pozabankowe kołobrzeg kredyt konsolidacyjny encyklopedia pożyczki de minimis dobry kredyt kalisz pożyczki dla prawników kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea bank pożyczki tarnobrzeg kredyt bank koszty pożyczki gotówkowe porównanie ofert kredyty chwilówki oszustwo kredyty albo pożyczki bez biku w grudziądzu actum pożyczki umowa ustna pożyczki pieniędzy pożyczki bez bik lubelskie odsetki od pożyczki przychodem podatkowym łatwy kredyt pozabankowy kredyty chwilówki praca kalisz pożyczki na procent szczecin pożyczki tychy pożyczki na dowód do 5000 pozyczki osoby prywatne bydgoszcz pożyczki chwilówki kościerzyna gdzie najlatwiej po pozyczke pod zastaw domu pożyczki bgk pożyczki z nigerii umowa pożyczki wynagrodzenie pożyczki do 8000 pożyczki bez biku tarnów bocian pożyczki olsztyn telefon kredyt studencki pko bp 2013 kredyt bank w jarocinie kredyt w banku bph kalkulator kredyt bank myślenice godziny otwarcia dobry kredyt bez bik forum pożyczki gotówkowe wałbrzych pożyczki długoterminowe przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw agd pożyczki bez bik nysa gdzie najlepiej wziąć kredyt bez biku bank pko bp kredyt na mieszkanie bocian pożyczki przedstawiciel pożyczki dla doktorantów pożyczki chwilówki bez opłat oświadczenie o zwrocie pożyczki wzór kredyt bank oplaty spółka udziela pożyczki udziałowcowi pcc kredyt bank bankomaty władysławowo wzór pokwitowania pożyczki kredyt bez bik siedlce kredyt bank łódż kredyt dla firm bez bik na start opinie pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt eurobank opinie pożyczki bez bik ostrowiec św kredyt bank promocje umowa pożyczki charakter kredyt gotówkowy w pko sa opinie pożyczki internetowe kredyt bank tabela opłat i prowizji pożyczki pozabankowe września kredyt w fortis banku opinie wzor umowa pożyczki między osobą fizyczną a firmą uni cash pożyczki kredyt bank kraków wielicka kredyty bez bik trójmiasto pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik forum czy można dobrać kredyt w credit agricole pozyczki od 18 lat wrocław credit agricole pożyczki kredyt bank inowrocław kontakt kredyt studencki warunki spłaty kredyt bank świebodzin kredyt bank zgubiona karta kredyt bank departament windykacji consumer finance kredyt konsolidacyjny raiffeisen bank mikropożyczki ue kredyt bank wałbrzych telefon wyrok umowa pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe dębica kredyt bank nowe konto kredyt bez bik i zaświadczeń pożyczki gotówkowe kraków lokata kredyt banku 6 5 pożyczki chwilówki żywiec kredyt bankowy w bilansie kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej kredyty pozabankowe ogłoszenia kredyt konsolidacyjny millenium kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe mińsk mazowiecki kredyt studencki pko kwota kredyty pozabankowe w poznaniu umowa kredytu bankowego a pożyczka pożyczki od osób prywatnych leszno pożyczki na dowód lubuskie certus pożyczki opinie kredyty bez bik krakow umowa pozyczki wzor aviva pozyczki warszawa getin bank kredyt samochodowy opinie kredyty mieszkaniowe 2009 kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole opinie mikropożyczki indie kredyt bank łapy kredyt samochodowy santander consumer bank kredyt konsolidacyjny dla firm bez zabezpieczeń reklamy pozyczek pozabankowych w ostrowie i kaliszu pożyczki bez bik brzeg wzór pokwitowania spłaty pożyczki pożyczka z komornikiem w mysłowicach kredyt bank regulamin pozyczki krosos windykacja kredyty bez bik i krd slask wzór umowy pożyczki koleżeńskiej pozyczki dla osob krd i pracujacych na czarno szczecin kredyty pozabankowe slask pożyczki biznes szybki kredyt bez bik 10000 pożyczki z tygodniowa rata kredyt w getin banku opinie 2013 kredyt studencki pko powtarzanie roku kredyt mieszkaniowy wypowiedzenie umowy kredyt bank pocztowy wasze opinie pożyczki pozabankowe w białymstoku kredyt gotówkowy w eurobanku kalkulator kalkulator kredytu konsolidacyjnego pko bp kredyt bank licytacje kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe regulamin warunki otrzymania pożyczki w pko termin przedawnienia roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki pożyczki minicredit pożyczki chwilówki olecko pożyczki prywatne dla nowych firm kredyt bank oddziały w warszawie pożyczki między internautami kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator alior umowa pożyczki dla pracownika ze środków obrotowych kredyt bank wodzisław kredyt przez internet bez zadnych zaswiadczen pożyczki online bez bik ranking kredyt chwilówka kondratowicza pożyczki gotówkowe sezam sp z oo szybkie pożyczki legnica kredyt samochodowy alior bank kredyt bank forum 2012 pożyczki chwilówki holandia w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na dom umowa pożyczki między małżonkami wzór kredyt bank w dąbrowie górniczej pożyczki gotówkowe nowy sącz kredyt konsolidacyjny plus gotówka pożyczki bez zaświadczeń bydgoszcz pożyczki pozabankowe rumia pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa 2014 rok szybki kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kredyt orange kod czym uzasadnic pozyczke na remont pożyczki bez bik działdowo kredyt bank zgorzelec godziny otwarcia pożyczka pod zastaw nieruchomości filia w koszalinie kredyty pozabankowe śląsk pożyczki w domu klienta lubin pożyczki z komornikiem chorzów bocian pożyczki mail pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel alior bank kredyt gotówkowy symulacja pożyczki pod zastaw puławy pożyczki dla zadłużonych opole pożyczki do 1200 zł pożyczki od ręki pieniądzie ostrowiec św kredyty na samochód bez bik kredyty w getin bank opinie wniosek o preferencyjny kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt konsolidacyjny dla małych firm wzór oświadczenia pożyczki kredyt bank świdnica godziny otwarcia pożyczki w 15 minut kredyt w uk gdzie najlepiej umowa pożyczki oprocentowanej kredyt bank pulawska 303 pożyczki między przedsiębiorcami pożyczki pozabankowe zielona góra kredyty konsolidacyjne opinie pozyczki na dowod w domu slask pożyczki kujawiak pożyczki pod zastaw ruchomości pożyczki dla firm na oświadczenie kredyty chwilówki polkowice getin bank kredyt samochodowy kalkulator bank pekao sa kredyt studencki 2012 pożyczki chwilówki gdynia kredyt jako produkt bankowy import usług pożyczki umowa pożyczki bankowej kredyt w banku spółdzielczym opinie kredyt bank powstańców śląskich wrocław kredyt bank piła sikorskiego kredyt mieszkaniowy zdolność kredytowa kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny jak to działa kredyt bankowy proz kredyt gotówkowy w getin bank forum banki kredytu konsumenckiego kredyt bank poznań kontakt pożyczki nowe online pożyczki udzielone przez polske kredyt bank telefon całodobowy pożyczki polska wschodnia jaki jest numer na kredyt orange czy warto brać kredyt w getin banku kredyt chwilówka przez sms oprocentowanie pożyczki ekspresowej pekao sa kredyt konsolidacyjny odstąpienie od umowy santander consumer bank kredyt kontakt pożyczki dla prawników look finanse pożyczki jak wziąść pożyczke kredyty wszystkie banki kredyt bank ul kasprzaka pozyczki na procent dublin pożyczki gotówkowe od ręki kredyt bez bik bez konta bankowego pozyczka jarocin bez bik szybko w domu darmowe pożyczki chwilówki udzielenie pożyczki osobie fizycznej kredyt bank szczecin matejki telefon pożyczki chwilówki holandia centrum finansowe pożyczki alior bank kredyt kalkulator umowa pożyczki angielski pożyczki gotówkowe chwilówki przez internet wzór umowy pożyczki finansowej numer telefonukredyt chwiluwka w słupsk pozyczka bocian bytom udzielenie pożyczki podmiotowi powiązanemu kredyt studencki w banku pko bp kredyt w banku millennium pożyczki gotówkowe sezam kredyt bank altus katowice kredyt bank bz wbk połączenie kredyt w banku komercyjnym pożyczki częstochowa pożyczki gierka umowa pożyczki komputera kredyt konsolidacyjny z dodatkową gotówką pożyczki pod zastaw wołomin betgang pożyczki punkt pozyczek bocian w swiebodzinie umowa pożyczki za granicą pcc kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt biznes kredyt bez bik bez poreczycieli łatwy kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyty bez biku bytom kredyt bank katowice uniwersytecka godziny otwarcia udzielę pożyczki prywatnej toruń pko bp kredyt studencki do kiedy legitymacja kredyty parobankowe udzielajacy miesieczne raty kredyt bank w zielonce umowa pożyczki pomiędzy podmiotami powiązanymi pko kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyt i umowa na czas okreslony pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości koszalin pożyczki kasa fiskalna kredyt bank regulamin ekstrakonto pożyczki na dowód rzeszów kredyt mieszkaniowy pko bp opinie 2013 kredyt mieszkaniowy warunki otrzymania kredyty chwilówki biznes wonga pożyczki reklama firma pożyczki chwilówki umowa pożyczki walutowej kredyt bank polecenie zapłaty www optima pl do ilu daja kredyt umowa pożyczki pieniężnej między osobami fizycznymi pozyczka 24h do domu nowy targ kredyt bez bik dla zadłuzonych banki kredyty gotówkowe ranking marcin adler pożyczki kredyt bank wroclaw placowki kredyty bez bik bank bikuś pożyczki umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami a pcc rodzaje kredytów bankowych dla przedsiębiorstw kredyt 160 tyś bez biku umowa pożyczki spółki wzór kredyty bez bik wroclaw pożyczki długoterminowe wikipedia pożyczki w domu klienta pożyczki gotówkowe płock kredyt w mbanku opinie gdzie kredyt bez bik zatrudnionych zagranica kredyt bank w bełchatowie kredyty chwilówki system partner pl szybkie pożyczki bocian kredyt na dowód przez internet bez biku pożyczki w pko bank polski kredyt w banku spółdzielczym bez bik kredyt bank moje konto kredyt na samochód w credit agricole opinie rzeszów kasa stefczyka kredyt na umowie zagranicznej pro collect pożyczki kredyt samochodowy mbank pożyczki bez bik radom udzielone pożyczki w bilansie umowy pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bez bik kalisz kruk pożyczki pożyczki ostróda kredyty bez bik nowy sącz bocian pożyczki bik umowa poręczenia pożyczki axcess financial pożyczki porównanie kredytu lublin broker pożyczki prywatne od osób prywatnych kredyt bank bb kredyt bez bik opolskie szybkie kredyty bez biku kredyt bank kondycja finansowa niezarejestrowana umowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w providencie kredyt bank kondycja kalkulator pożyczki pko bp pożyczki gotówkowe pko pcc od pożyczki kosztem uzyskania przychodu kredyty pozabankowe bielsko pożyczki do 5000 zł bez bik kredyt bank chełmno godziny otwarcia pożyczki społecznościowe opinie 2012 kredyt bank raszyn telefon pożyczki konsorcjalne pożyczki na mały procent wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki kto brał kredyt w getin banku kredyt orange na jaki numer w jakim banku kredyt na dowód sezam pożyczki krotoszyn kredyt bank transfery pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia szybkie pożyczki grudziądz kredyty chwilówki lublin deutsche bank kredyt na dowod online kredyt bank k24 bocian pozyczki wągrowiec pko kredyt studencki kiedy wypłata kredyt mieszkaniowy gdzie najlepiej kredyt mieszkaniowy deutsche bank opinie 2012 kredyt bank windykacja praca pożyczki pod zastaw nidzica kredyt gotówkowy w którym banku najlepiej pożyczki pomysł na biznes pozyczki bez biku i zaswiadczen i dochodach kredyt odnawialny w mbanku dla studenta umowa pożyczki zamiast darowizny kredyty bez bik przez internet kredyt gotówkowy w alior banku opinie pożyczki brzeg umowa pożyczki oświadczenie o poddaniu się egzekucji pożyczki w domu klienta szczecin szybki kredyt w getin banku jaki jest numer zeby wziasc kredyt w orange kredyt bank lomza godziny otwarcia kredyt bank augustów kredyty mieszkaniowe w banku pko pekao sa kredyt wpis w big pożyczki pozabankowe krasnystaw kredyt bank 2001 pożyczki chwilówki olsztyn pieniężnego kredyt bank sa lublin narutowicza pożyczki gotówkowe kołobrzeg kredyt bank wydział windykacji kredyt bank zambrów godziny otwarcia

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad