pożyczka prywatna od zaraz kraków reklama pożyczki przez internet w jakim banku wziac kredyt forum przejęcie kredyt banku przez wbk pożyczki na dowód bielawa kredyty gotówkowe banku alior pożyczki prywatne suwałki bocian pożyczki lubuskie ewidencja pożyczki od udziałowca kredyt studencki pko bp wniosek pożyczki pozabankowe pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego poznań kredyt bank polska 2012 bocian pożyczki wrocław kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury kredyt bank w słupsku kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej w ing mti pożyczki pożyczki dla nastolatków kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp forum pożyczki z parp kredyt bank bonifacego ing bank pozyczki na zalozenie firmy kredyty bez bik skarzysko kredyty bez bik w siedlcach pożyczki na dowód forum bankomaty kredyt banku w gdańsku kredyty pozyczki chwilowki kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie pożyczki bez bik i krd kielce kredyt bank praca szczecin pożyczki pozabankowe w uk kredyt bank pruszków godziny otwarcia kredyty w alior banku opinie niezgłoszenie pożyczki od rodziców pożyczki orange kredyt gotówkowy a umowa na czas określony pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych kredyt studencki banki udzielające pożyczki grójec pożyczki na dowód osobisty od ręki pożyczki chwilówki ostrów wlkp kredyty bez bik i krd szczecin pożyczki chwilówki przez internet bez bik getin bank kredyt na pit oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowe online bez bik kredyt bank karta kredytowa mastercard world pożyczki bez bik i krd i big pożyczki pozabankowe 2012 kredyt bank wrocław chrobrego kredyt konsolidacyjny oddłużeniowy kredyt bank chałubińskiego 8 pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej rybnik kredyt bez sprawdzania w bik przez internet grudziadz parkmar pozyczki część pożyczki puszczona w obieg konto kredyty bankowe rachunkowość kredyt bank grójecka 45 kredyt konsolidacyjny katowice pożyczki pod zastaw pkd kredyty pozabankowe oświęcim kredyty bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt bank w m1 kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie kredyt bank sa opinie kredyty konsolidacyjny z komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum kredyt konsolidacyjny z małżonkiem kredyt bank tomaszów mazowiecki godziny otwarcia kredyt bank warszawa chełmska 9 kredyt bank w tomaszowie maz kredyt bank niemodlin kredyt bank glowna siedziba kredyt na samochód bez bik forum pożyczki w kasie stefczyka wzór pisma pożyczki pieniędzy firmy oferujące pożyczki pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska gdzie szybki kredyt bez bik ubezpieczenie pożyczki ing poszukuję pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank archiwum kursów walut kredyt konsolidacyjny 5000 kredyt na firme bez biku pożyczki olecko kredyt bez zaświadczeń o dochodach bez bik kredyty chwilówki nysa rynek bocian pożyczki jaki procent kredyt bank krakow kapelanka dobre pożyczki bez bik opinie kredyt bank w nidzicy kredyt bank klienci udzielać pożyczki po angielsku pożyczka kielce online kredyt pozabankowy bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej wzór postea pożyczki kredyt bank spółdzielczy kalkulator kredyt bank dubois pożyczki bez bik ostrołęka kredyt bankowy to pasywa kredyt pozabankowy opinie kredyt w eurobanku pożyczki bez bik słubice kredyt bez bik strzelin pożyczki dla rolników warszawa pożyczka bez sprawdzania w krd i bik umowa pożyczki z deklaracją wekslową kredyt bank spółdzielczy skawina pozyczki bez zdolnosci kredytowej od 18lat ranking pożyczki optima olsztyn odsetki od pożyczki obowiązek vat umowa zwrotu pożyczki wzór kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku millennium kredyt w euro lista banków kredyt w uk gdzie najlepiej aig kredyt konsolidacyjny orange kod kredyt pożyczki gotówkowe wiki oblicz kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim kredyt bank chrzanów telefon czas oczekiwania na kredyt w banku pocztowym pożyczki online 18 lat pozyczki bocian dla osob w bik kredyt na dowod numery telefonu olsztyn pożyczki 50000 pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik szczecin pożyczki mennica jelenia góra optima pożyczki do domu łódź kredyt bank żuromin uzasadnienie pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe kredyt samochodowy dla mundurowych umowa w sprawie pożyczki mieszkaniowej bank pko pożyczki gotówkowe wzór pisma pożyczki pieniędzy wyliczanie rat pożyczki kredyt w vdwoch transzach odluzeniowy pozyczki gotowkowe holandia 2014 skok piast kredyt 5000 kredyt bank lubartów telefon kredyt bank grochowska kredyt bank obligacje orange kod kredytu duzy kredyt bez bik wieruszów kredyt bank kredyt na mieszkanie pożyczki chwilówki kielce pozyczki i kredyty bez bik i krd splaty ratalne pozyczki zdunska wola kredyt mieszkaniowy bez bik pożyczki prywatne wyszków kredyty mieszkaniowe przelicznik udzielenie pożyczki przez udziałowca a pcc kredyt bank zaświadczenie o zarobkach pdf pozyczki od ręki mława kalkulator pożyczki ekspresowej pekao kredyt samochodowy ing oprocentowanie kredyt konsolidacyjny w nordea bank kredyt pozabankowy na zakup samochodu kalkulator pożyczki bank śląski kredyt w deutsche banku pożyczki dla zadłużonych kielce pożyczki bez biku na dowud do domu praca w bocianie pożyczki ekspresowe pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta kredyty chwilówki czy sprawdzają bik kredyt samochodowy getin noble bank kredyt bank wąwozowa kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 000 pożyczki dla bezrobotnych przez internet kredyt bank gdańsk zaspa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa opinie zwolnienia grupowe w kredyt banku 2012 pożyczki pozabankowe elbląg odsetki karne od niespłaconej pożyczki pozyczki pozabankowe z zajeciem komorniczym boleslawiec kredyt bank net umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenia szybkie pozyczki mprywatne na procent warszawa pożyczki bez stałych dochodów kredyt bank warszawa górczewska 200 pcc od umowy pożyczki dla pracownika regulamin pożyczki skok umowa pożyczki pod zastaw samochodu doc pożyczki bez zaświadczeń łódź czy kredyty chwilówki sprawdzają bik kredyt bankowy po angielsku pożyczki inwestycje fundusze unijne pożyczki pożyczki poczta polska bocian pożyczki zg pozyczki dla rencistow bez bik torun pozyczki bez bik przez internet kredyt bank nysa szopena kredyt konsolidacyjny wysokość raty kredyt bank sieradz kredyt bez bik w 5 minut kredyt pozabankowy na samochód kredyt bank białystok ul mickiewicza kredyt z idea banku opinie kredyt bank sa lublin żagiel kredyt bank godziny przelewów kredyt bank siedlce godziny otwarcia pożyczki bytom pożyczki bez bik krotoszyn biura kredytowe pozabankowe boleslawiec ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt oniliaj pożyczki na dowód lublin pożyczki wspólników udzielane spółkom kapitałowym kredyt w getin banku kalkulator pożyczki bez udokumentowanych dochodów asper pożyczki elbląg kredyty chwilówki forum praca kredyty chwilówki dęblin kredyt bank średni kurs walut kredyt w uk lloyds kredyt bank v oddział warszawa kredyt bank kobierzyńska kredyt w banku wikipedia pozyczka prywatna czechowice kredyt samochodowy dla nowych firm kalkulator pożyczki dla firm forum kredyt bank zarząd kredyt w millenium bank opinie pozyczki placówki w pabianicach kredyt w banku oprocentowanie pożyczki toruń bez bik kredyt bank bełchatów kredyty trudne bez biku i prywatne kredyt konsumpcyjny w banku bph kredyt na dowod mielec pożyczki bezprocentowe dla firm konwersja pożyczki na akcje kredyty bankowe ranking pożyczki gotówkowe optima pożyczki prywatne tarnowskie góry oddziały kredyt banku w krakowie pożyczki 1000 oprocentowanie kredytu studenckiego w pko bp szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe przez internet getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu umowa dotycząca pożyczki ing bank śląski kredyt samochodowy kredyt na dowod w domu klienta proste pożyczki bez bik bocian pożyczki regulamin pożyczki dla polaków uk naliczanie odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki preferencyjne śląsk umowa pożyczki koleżeńskiej pożyczki gotówkowe z bikiem kredyt konsolidacyjny credit agricole kalkulator pokwitowanie pożyczki pieniędzy kredyty chwilówki bedzin umowa zawarcia pożyczki wzór pożyczki gotówkowe bez zaświadczeń przez internet kredyt bank monit pro domo kredyty bydgoszcz kredyty mieszkaniowe wcześniejsza spłata pożyczki bez bik plus kredyt na oświadczenie o dochodach bez bik decyzja kredytowa w kredyt banku 2012 szybkie pozyczki lublin bez bik raport pożyczki kredyt studencki pko informacja umowa pożyczki na rzecz spółki kredyt bank na pradze ulica adres pożyczki pod zastaw chojnice kredyt bank konto junior zwrot pożyczki ang pozyczki pod zastaw w uk kredyt bank m1 kraków kredyt bank biała podlaska godziny otwarcia pożyczki długoterminowe bez bik poznań kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole forum idea bank opinie kredyt dla firm kredyt pleszew bez biku pożyczki bez bik i krd głogów pożyczki zfśs w bilansie kredyt bank pożyczka na dowód pożyczki kalkulator ing pożyczki dla firm bez zus i us szybkie pożyczki gdansk deutsche bank kredyt na dowod online getin noble bank kredyt deweloperski pozyczki chwilowki na dowod mragowo pożyczki bez bik do 25000 alior bank kredyt dla lekarzy kredyt bez bik kościan pożyczki na dowód pleszew kredyt gotówkowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie kredyt bank w zduńskiej woli kredyt bank wakacje kredytowe umowa pożyczki w banku kredyt bez bik bielsko pożyczki w policji pozyczki pozabankowe ostroda bez sprawdzania baz danych faktura za odsetki od pożyczki wzór pożyczki bez bik koszalin kredyt bank archiwum kursów walut złe kredyty w działalności banków kredyt bank hasła jednorazowe sms pożyczki w domu klienta opole kredyt bankowy a pożyczka bankowa kredyt bankowy bez krd pożyczki od osób prywatnych bez bik odsetki ustawowe od pożyczki 2012 kredyt bank mielec telefon odsetki od pożyczki tłumaczenie pożyczka w domu klienta śląsk kredyt bank wólczańska 178 kredyt bank mateusze kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pko sa pozyczka banknot siedlce idea bank kredyt samochodowy oprocentowanie pożyczki pod zastaw stargard kredyt konsolidacyjny w eurobanku forum pragma pożyczki kronos pożyczki kraków cashflow pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy credit agricole forum kredyty mieszkaniowe mieszkanie dla młodych ranking kredytów mieszkaniowych grudzień 2012 kredyty chwilówki kadry bocian pożyczki bolesławiec kredyt bank oprocentowanie kart kredytowych aneks do umowy pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank zagan kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik dla zadłużonych kredyt w banku dla zadłużonych kredyt konsolidacyjny kielce wzór umowy pożyczki od znajomego kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osób z bik banknot pozyczki pożyczki bez bik w starachowicach kredyt bank ken 57 pożyczki internetowe bez przelewu bank pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty kredyt bank włocławek telefon pożyczki w skoku opinie kredyty w skok bez bik kredyt bank warszawa puławska male kredyty anglia pozyczki tempo finanse oddzial mosina pożyczki prywatne tablica kredyt bank 24 jakie banki udzielają kredytów bez bik wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki dla polaków w londynie parabanki umowa pożyczki od udziałowca druk pożyczki z ratami tygodniowymi pożyczki w banku ing kredyt bank gdynia skwer godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ostrzeszów kredyt na samochód dla firm bez bik jak działają pożyczki chwilówki kredyty bez bik bialystok kredyt bank oprocentowanie konta oszczędnościowego kredyt bank wizja lokalna kredyt bank numer kontaktowy umowa pożyczki a umowa kredytu kredyt na pit pożyczki społecznościowe strategie inwestycyjne kredyt bank radom żeromskiego kontakt kredyt bank likwidacja kredyty chwilówki tarnów krakowska kredyty bez bik gdansk kredyty chwilówki tomaszów mazowiecki jak umorzyc pozyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank warszawa ul targowa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank fundusze inwestycyjne kredyty chwilówki łódź rzgowska pożyczki cashper opinie kredyt bankowy książki chomikuj kredyt bank infolinia 24h pożyczki w domu klienta wrocław kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator rat wbk pożyczki na dowód w 15 minut kredyt w millenium bank opinie kredyt bank zarobki aleksander jodłowiec pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w którym banku pożyczki opole godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik kutno w jakim banku pozyczka na dowod kredyty w skok bez bik pożyczki wągrowiec pożyczki społecznościowe gdzie kredyt bank b24 bocian pożyczki elbląg pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik zielona góra kredyty konsolidacyjne bz wbk szybkie pożyczki chwilowki w krakowie alior bank kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki na dowód włocławek kredyt bank warszawa centrum kredyt bank sa oddział bydgoszcz kredyty bez bik zus i us podatek od pożyczki kara jak wziasc kredyt bez bik kredyty chwilówki dęblin kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp opinie 2011 kredyty chwilówki puławska eurolan pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy bank pocztowy opinie pożyczki pozabankowe dzierżoniów kod na kredyt w sieci orange bankowy kredyt pod zastaw działki kredyt w banku gbs windykator kredyty chwilówki kredyt bank polaczenie rzeszów pożyczki prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe umowa zlecenie kredyt bank misja gdzie dają pożyczki na dowód kredyty chwilówka bielsko pożyczka pomiędzy osobami fizycznymi kredyt bank wiceprezes franchising pożyczki kredyt bank prowizje kredyt na dom a umowa na czas określony pośrednictwo finansowe kredyty chwilówki opinie kredyt bank oddziały warszawa pożyczki w getin banku banki kredyty na mieszkanie kredyt w banku spółdzielczym a bik kredyt bank ketlinga getin noble bank restrukturyzacja kredytu prywatne pożyczki bez sprawdzania czy komornik sprawdza umowe kredytowa pożyczki chwilówki zasady pożyczki prywatne na dowód pożyczki w domu klienta opole kredyt bank bełchatów czy kredyt bank jest czynny w soboty poszukuję pożyczki pod zastaw udzielenie pożyczki akcjonariuszowi kto płaci podatek od pożyczki z zagranicy pozyczki do 15000 anglia kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt opinie kredyt bez bik nowy tomyśl pożyczki na pit kredyt bank likwidacja karty kredytowej pożyczki bez biku włocławek umowy pożyczki w formie aktu notarialnego kredyt bank sa łomża chwilówki lublin pożyczki lublin chwilówki lubelskie kredyty chwilówki feniks kredyty bez bik dla zadluzonych warunki kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp pożyczki gotówkowe do 20000 kredyt bank fundusz nieruchomości ii bank pekao sa kredyt obrotowy pożyczki na dowód oława pożyczki lubin pozyczki bez biku i zaswiadczen i dochodach kredyt obrotowy deutsche bank oprocentowanie kredyt bez bik kluczbork kredyty bez biki krd alior bank kredyt ratalny kredyty chwilówki rzeszów plac wolności kredyt w banku na samochód kredyt bank nr telefonu kredyty bez bik od zaraz kredyt samochodowy bank pko sa kredyt bank franczyza umowa pożyczki a koszty uzyskania przychodu kredyt bank sa białystok ul warszawska pożyczki prywatne malbork siwz kredyt bankowy kredyt preferencyjny alior bank kredyt bank lokaty dla firm kredyt pozabankowy sosnowiec ewidencja księgowa pożyczki dla pracownika kredyt mieszkaniowy własny kąt pko bp opinie credit pożyczki pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw auta kredyt bank centrala warszawa bank pko bp kredyt studencki rola kredytu w działalności banku kredyt bank krauthofera 16 pożyczki z pfron 2013 lombard pożyczki pod zastaw wrocław kredyty i gwarancje bankowe zbigniew dobosiewicz pdf pożyczki gotówkowe dla młodych reklama pożyczki 2012 dobranie pożyczki ing bank zachodni wbk sa kredyt studencki umowa pożyczki z osobą fizyczną pożyczki pod zastaw jelenia góra bank spółdzielczy kredyt gotówkowy oprocentowanie kredyt na dowód tarchomin siedziba warszawa pożyczki społecznościowe prawo kredyt bank warszawa śliska kredyt bank pko bp kalkulator pożyczki pszczółka kredyty bez bik do 80000 bip pożyczki formularz kredyty chwilówki płock kredyt obrotowy w getin banku kredyty chwilówki jakie dokumenty

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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Bastard!

 

The late French linguist Albert Dauzat came up with the most picturesque origin of the word bastard. Dauzat’s notion was that the insult derived from an Old French word bast meaning ‘packsaddle for a mule’ or ‘saddlebag slung over a mule’s back’ + the negative French suffix -ard. Thus a bastard was probably the love child of a man who herded mules and one night enjoyed a carnal connection with some highway hussy using his saddlebag as a pillow during their sex. No kidding! Was this a particularly weird way to name an illegitimate offspring in medieval European languages? Too bizarre to have ever accounted for the word’s accurate origin? No, not at all.

 

Two muleteers adjust the grass-filled aparejo pack saddle, shifting weight from the mule's back to its ribcage.

 

Compare some other European words for a wretch begotten out of wedlock.

Old French had a word coitrart ‘quilt-child.’

German has Bankling ‘bench-child,’ suggesting a quick copulatory alliance on a tavern table. Low German had Mantelkind ‘cloak-child,’ summoning up the picture of a torrid coupling under a greatcoat in a ditch at the side of a medieval highway.

Even the Vikings had a word for bastardy. In Old Norse hrissungr means ‘brushwood-child.’ Ragnar got lucky in the shrubbery.

Victorian English sniffed haughtily at such corporeal wallowings and gross affinities and, sneering through its tortoise-shell lorgnette, termed the loathsome product a ‘love child.’ In British legal terminology, the word bastard referred specifically to an illegitimate but acknowledged-by-the-father son of noble gentry or royalty. Some etymologists state that this fils de bast ‘child of a packsaddle’ is dubious both chronologically and geographically.

Differing proposals for the root of ‘bastard’ abound. The notion is posited that a Germanic root *bast ‘marriage’ is the origin, with the pejorative suffix –ard added to mean that it was the child of a ‘bad’ marriage with a wench of low estate or that a bastard was the peasant offspring of a Christian and a pagan, a conjointure not sanctioned by holy ritual. But that guess reads to me as a conceit no sillier than the packsaddle one.

Others offer a ‘lost’ Proto-Germanic word for barn, namely *bansti, that may be akin to Gothic bansts ‘barn son.’ So that a bastard is a ‘son of the barn,’ whose straw-bedded conception featured a clodhopper diddling a milkmaid in a haystack.

Where Did –Ard, the Suffix, Come From?

The Old French operative, negative suffix –art or –ard was copied from the Germanic adjective –hart or –hard, an extremely frequent component of two-part Teutonic warrior names like Richard. Remember that the two roots in each Germanic binomial name did not have to make clear sense; they merely had to be taken from an agreed-upon list of “name” roots. Richard = Reich Germanic ‘kingdom’ + -hardt Germanic ‘enduring, tough, hardy.’ Gerard is similarly Gar ‘sword’ + -hard. Everard or Everett is Ebur Germanic ‘wild boar’ + -hardt. Leonard means ‘brave as a lion’ from German Leonhard = leo, leonis Latin ‘lion’ + -hard.

In Old French this usually negative suffix –ard was extremely productive, for example in French words like bastard, couard, canard, mallard, mouchard, and vieillard. After the Norman Conquest these words poured into Britain and, by the time of Middle English, we had borrowed wizard, placard, standard. Then, in forming new English words, the ending –ard came to mean ‘one who performs acts to excess or to his discredit’ in words like buzzard, drunkard, laggard, and sluggard.

Most provocative of all is that many of the English nationality names may have begun as insults, as depreciatory snubs like Spaniard, Lombard, Savoyard. The semantic weight of ‘something hard’ survives in other words with this suffix, e.g. billiards, petard, poniard and tankard.

Coward

This word for a craven, white-livered weakling goes all the way back to the Latin word for tail, cauda, perhaps because a coward turns tail and runs away with his tail between his legs. The line of derivation may look like this: Old French coart/cohart/cuard/cowairt/couard > Provençal coart > Italian codardo = coda + -ardo pejorative suffix> Italian coda > Latin cauda.

 

Some Familiar –ard Words in English

Drunkard

Dullard

Laggard

Lubbard – a big, clumsy oaf

Sluggard

Wizard — sage or magician, but wizard began as an insult equivalent to ‘smart ass’ or ‘big brain’, from the adjective wise + -ard.

Lizard — sometimes assimilation of the –ard suffix occurred, as in the form of lizard from Old French lesard (modern French lézard, lézarde) and Italian lacerta, both from Latin lacertus and lacerta. The usual ending in Old French would have seen a form like *lesert, but people thought it was the –ard ending and pronounced it that way.

Mallard = Middle English < Middle French mallart < Anglo-Norman malle male + French suffix -ard, hence a meaning like ‘excessively masculine in behaviour.’ Our ending is usually quite pejorative and in the word mallard may be also. In this species of common wild duck, Anas platyrhynchos (Latin and Greek ‘flat-billed duck’) the “very” male mallard is deeply interested in duck sex but makes the female brood the eggs, raise the ducklings and feed them, while he swims lazily about the pond preening his feathers. Mallards were the source breeding stock of most domestic duck hybrids in the West.

Mustard — Mustard got its name because the original condiment was ground mustard grains mixed with most or must, unfermented grape juice, hence most + -ard. It entered our language after 1066 CE as Anglo- Norman French mustarde, mustard, mostart, moustard. The postclassical Latin mustardum was a medieval form borrowed from French and reLatinized. The word did not exist in ancient Rome, where the Romans borrowed the Greek word for mustard. Mustard in classical Latin was sinapi.

Hence the spurious etymology seen so often on the internet is a deeply ignorant guess, namely: must ‘grape juice’+ ardens Latin ‘fiery.’ So mustard is fiery grape juice, is it? This utter claptrap is found in bad dictionaries and on word websites that are not reliable, such as the infamous podictionary whose writer, with no discernible scholarship in word study, is taken in by every folk etymology that comes down the pike and who appears to do NO investigative research into etymology but instead riffles through pop word books, copying whatever origin is colorful, no matter how ignorant. All one need do to know that sinapi is the Latin word for mustard, not mustardum, is to look it up in a cheap seven-dollar English-Latin paperback dictionary. The pod person who compiles “the podictionary” could not even be bothered to do that. What a schlub! What contempt he displays for his readers. Mustardum as a form did not exist until the 12th or 13th century.

 

 

A Few Uncommon English –ard Words

Ballard- obsolete word for a bald-headed person from bald + -ard

Bullard – keeps a bull, shortened from bullward; nothing to do with –ard suffix

Bombard – old word for bumblebee

Canard – is the French word for ‘duck’ as well as its other meanings like ‘hoax’ or ‘false story.’ Its roots are Old French verb caner ‘to quack’ + -ard as operative suffix, hence le canard is ‘the quacker.’

Clochard – French word for ‘beggar’ used by Hemingway from clocher French ‘to limp.’

Bugiard – a liar

Croisard or crusard – neat but obsolete insult for a Crusader

Dizzard – a dizzy dolt, a fool, a simpleton ---- obsolete but worth reviving

Doddard – a pollarded tree

Babillard – chatterer, a bird name

Blinkard – an obsolete word for a doddering old, blinking fart. A word well worth reviving, due to the paucity of insult words in English.

Boggard – a bogey, a goblin

Boinard – obsolete word for a fool

Buffard — a rare word for a silly fellow

Here’s one from French: le Père Fouettard ‘Father Flogger,’ is a continental French bogeyman, an evil man dressed in black who stuffs bad children into a big bag and wallops them with a stick or a whip. He is a nightmare version of the punitive father.

I wish to end this piece by coining a cheap new word. I hereby propose the hybrid word schleppard for a goof-off who drops the ball, a loser who never puts the puck in the net. Perhaps some religious saviour having an off day could have been called The Good Schleppard? Or perhaps not? Guards! Seize the coiner of that neologism!

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad