picasso pożyczki prywatne pożyczki na sam dowód kwota pożyczki wolna od pcc kredyt wbk bank zachodni prywatna umowa pożyczki pieniędzy kredyty chwilówka rybnik pożyczki online w 15 minut kalisz kredyt na dowód bydgoszcz kątakt pożyczki bez bik w olsztynie wzór umowy pożyczki nieoprocentowanej kredyt bank poznań niepodległości kredyty chwilówki pracownik reklamy kredyt preferencyjny dla rolników banki pozyczki pozabankowe bez bik w powiecie kutnowskim godziny przelewów w kredyt banku pożyczki bez bik cały kraj turbo pożyczki kredyt credit agricole kalkulator kredyt bank w augustowie kredyt wspólnota mieszkaniowa odpowiedzialność pożyczki bez bik nowy sącz kredyty chwilówki dział kadr kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kontakt kredyt bez biku w skoku transakcja pożyczki równoległej pożyczki younga kredyt bank karta kredytowa student pożyczki do domu grudziądz pożyczki dla każdego na dowód kredyt bank włocławek telefon kredyt bank lębork telefon szybkie pożyczki wałbrzych kredyt konsolidacyjny jelenia góra pożyczki bez bik długoterminowe pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości wielkopolska kredyt bank bielany kredyt konsolidacyjny zielona góra kredyt samochodowy dla emeryta pożyczki gotówkowe leszno jak zawiesić kredyt w getin banku pożyczki pozabankowe bez sprawdzania baz umowa pożyczki pieniędzy na raty kredyt bank pobierz token udzielę pożyczki prywatnej wrocław kredyt bank ostroleka kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla kogo kredyt bank kasprowicza pko bp kredyt studencki aneks oferta kredytową firmy optima umowa pożyczki pcc a vat konwersja pożyczki na kapitał wzór pożyczki przez internet dla firmy abis pozyczki abis kredyt bank lokata z bonusem eurobank kredyt gotówkowy z bikiem kredyt bez bik przez internet forum w ktorym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotowkowy kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat alior bank księgowanie pożyczki w walucie ustna umowa pożyczki a pcc kredyty chwilowki slupsk pożyczka w domu poznań potwierdzenie oddania pożyczki kredyt bank abrahama godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny na 10 lat umowa pożyczki a użyczenia bocian pożyczki mail kredyt bank wspiera żeglarzy kredyty mieszkaniowe z dopłatą rządową kalkulator pożyczki bez bik i krd odsetki od pożyczki koszty podatkowe umorzenie pożyczki spółce powiązanej kredyt bank sokółka kontakt bocian pożyczki rumia kredyty bez bik krd gdansk wrzeszcz ul mickiewicza zawieszenie raty w kredyt banku podatek od pożyczki w rodzinie 2013 kredyt konsolidacyjny dodatkowa gotówka kredyt bank otwock godziny otwarcia pozyczki online przez poczte pożyczki pozabankowe długoterminowe poznań pozyczki na procent słupsk umowa pożyczki wzór bezpłatny kredyty bez bik biała podlaska ostatnia sesja w kredyt banku kredyt bank w biłgoraju optima pożyczki toruń kredyt bank legnica godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny 40 000 pożyczki pozabankowe 40000 zatrudnienie kredyt bank 2012 ubezpieczenie pożyczki w skoku stefczyka jak wziąć kredyt w banku pocztowym pożyczki przez internet na dłuższy okres pożyczki kredyt dla zadłużonych kredyt samochodowy eurobank kredyty chwilówki wadowice kredyt bank gorzów kontakt kredyt samochodowy dla firm dokumenty pożyczki kyzoo opinie pożyczki chwilówki skierniewice kredyty chwilówki nowa huta pożyczki prywatne pod weksel poznań pożyczki ekspres kasa pożyczki dla firm bez zaświadczeń pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 krakow ul dluga pozyczki money eurolan pozyczki pożyczki pod zastaw przepisy banki ktore udzielaja kredytu bez biku chwilowka tczew czy dostane pozyczke na dowod pożyczki w mbanku opinie konto w kredyt banku warunki kredytu w getin banku pożyczki pozabankowe chodzież kredyty bez biku grudziadz umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a pcc neobank pożyczka bez bik kredyt bank gdanska bydgoszcz kredyt studencki zaświadczenie o studiowaniu kredyt bank godziny otwarcia łomża kredyt bank białobrzegi radomskie kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego bank bph kredyty niebankowe kredyt w banku na biznes getin noble bank regulamin kredytu eurocash pozyczki poznan w jakim banku kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kiedy przedawnia się niespłacony kredyt bankowy pożyczki pod zastaw dębica http pożyczki pozabankowe cba optima pożyczki praca forum kredyt mieszkaniowy podczas rozwodu pożyczki radom kredyt bank warszawa różana pożyczki pierwsza pożyczka za darmo kredyt bank kartuska 5 gdańsk pożyczki gotówkowe żary kredyt bank białystok lipowa pożyczki 5000zl bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach mlawa kredyt w banku nordea opinie kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym umowa pożyczki bez potwierdzenia odbioru kwoty kredyty typu chwilówka nowa sól pożyczki prywatnie poznań mieszkanie na kredyt hipoteczny nowy targ optima pożyczki szczecinek wniosek kredyt samo hodowy bez bik mini pozyczki be bik pożyczki gotówkowe dla rolników kredyt raz dwa trzy w banku pocztowym optima pożyczki ciechanów księgowanie środków w kredyt banku kredyt bank w poznaniu pozyczka bocian dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank biuro operacji i windykacji lublin na jaki numer wysyła sie kredyt w orange kredyt bank efs pożyczki pozabankowe w krakowie w którym banku najkorzystniejszy kredyt mieszkaniowy paulina dabrowska pozyczki przedmiotem pożyczki mogą być awans pożyczki kredyt bank gliwice telefon kredyty chwilówki łowicz kredyt bank bb kredyty chwilówki internetowe kredyt bank warszawa plac zbawiciela pożyczki chwilówki kraków pożyczki chwilówki 18 lat czy latwo dostac kredyt w credit agricole pożyczki bez bik tychy pożyczki provident przez internet pożyczka dla zadłużonych na dowód getin bank kredyt bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt bank suwałki godziny otwarcia kto umowa pożyczki pod zastaw kalkulator pożyczki gotówkowej wbk pożyczki premium kredyty chwilówki inwestor kredyt bank wroclaw sikorskiego pożyczki prywatne na weksel cała polska pożyczki chwilówki bielsk podlaski kredyt bank ken 19 wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowe pożyczki w domu klienta łódź pożyczki z parabanków pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz dłużników kredyt bank nieruchomości na sprzedaż kredyt bank consumer finance kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki wkład własny pożyczka pozbankowa 40000 bez przedpłat pożyczki bez rejestrów pożyczki lombardowe kod na kredyt z orange kredyt studencki bank pko bp pożyczki gotówkowe dla każdego santander kupił kredyt bank luty 2012 kredyt bank gliwice kontakt umowa pożyczki prywatnie pozyczka dla dluznikow warszawa pożyczki wodzisław śląski kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim 2014 pożyczki prywatne cała polska pożyczki prywatne tarnobrzeg pożyczki z zadłużeniem komorniczym placówki kredyt banku wrocław darowizna zamiast pożyczki pożyczki dla nowej firmy kredyt bank bednarska łódź kredyt konsolidacyjny 5000 kredyty na umowe na czas okreslony kredyt bank fundusz global partners kredyt samochodowy dla rencistów kredyt bank ostróda godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki stargard kredyt bank oddział łódź pożyczki prywatne mazowieckie kredyt bank warszawa mapa żyrowanie pożyczki pożyczki polbank pożyczki na dowód od ręki kredyt bank aktualne lokaty pożyczki ostrowiec podatek od odsetek od pożyczki wspólnika kredyt w banku jakie dokumenty kredyt bank sa warszawa oddziały pożyczki banku światowego dla polski regulamin pożyczki vivus kredyt internetowy eurobank umowa pożyczki przelew kredyt bank powsińska pożyczki w 15 minut przez internet koszty udzielenia pożyczki mikropożyczki olsztyn czy vivus udziela pożyczek zadluzonym pozyczki bocian leszno jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank akcje niespłacenie pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank lokata jesienna kredyt konsolidacyjny w pko bp sa pożyczki bez biku opinie pożyczka na dowód piła do 20 otwarcie kredyt bank lubin jana pawła nowy kredyt pozabankowy pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia urząd skarbowy podatek od pożyczki pożyczki przez internet oszustwa kredyt samochodowy dla młodych ludzi pożyczki oprocentowanie porównanie pożyczki pozabankowe pierwsza za darmo pożyczki pod weksel kraków kredyt bank w uk pożyczki 10000zł pożyczki od udziałowców a pcc kredyt konsolidacyjny w skoku stefczyka pożyczki bez bik radom eurocash pozyczki poznan kredyty pozabankowe siedlce pożyczki pod zastaw sieradz pożyczki wspólpraca kredyt studencki jakie warunki jak jest kod na kredyt w orange kredyt bank szczecin okulickiego godziny otwarcia pozyczki chwilowki konin ul dworcowa kredyt bank żytnia warszawa godziny otwarcia kredyt bank zytnia 15 godziny otwarcia kredyty lub pożyczki w grudziądzu bez biku kontakt oprocentowanie kredytu samochodowego szczecin kredyt mieszkaniowy 100 procent szybki kredyt bez bik forum kredyt konsolidacyjny radom kredyty mieszkaniowe sgb kredyt bank w bolesławcu ewidencja pożyczki z zfśs profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank pożyczki na otwarcie działalności pożyczki arimr kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kielce kredyt konsolidacyjny poczta polska kalkulator odsetek od pożyczki prywatnej pozyczki w domu klienta kredyt bank spółdzielczy opinie pożyczki bocian pożyczki dla polaków w londynie pożyczki provident przez internet kredyt samochodowy na firme forum wzór umowy pożyczki między członkami rodziny kredyt bank warszawa bonifacego kredyt dla nestora w banku pocztowym pożyczki bez biku kraków bocian pożyczki ostrów wlkp czy pozyczki marka sprwdzaja bik big czy krd pozyczki opole podatek od pożyczki między osobami fizycznymi najtańszy kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt bez bik 200 tys pożyczki osobiste getin noble bank kredyty samochodowe kredyt bank nowy sacz kontakt pożyczki gros umowa pożyczki obowiązki stron tsk pożyczki admin pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt studencki pko bp przedłużenie kredyty bez bik zdunska wola kredyt bank stargard godziny otwarcia pożyczki rodzaje kredyt bank garwolin godziny otwarcia pożyczki favore kredyty bez bik lodz pożyczki na założenie własnej firmy jaki jest kod na kredyt w orange pożyczki prywatne bocian bocian pożyczki olsztyn firmy kredytowe pozabankowe w katowicach kredyt bank bric pożyczki tarnowskie góry lodz bank pko bp kredyty dla wspolnot mieszkankowych kredyty helios pożyczki mennica kredyt bez bik długoterminowy kredyt konsolidacyjny citibank pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeńpoznan reklamacja pożyczki kredyt dla firm bez bik i zus kredyt bankowy podsumowanie umowa pożyczki pieniędzy między osobami fizycznymi pożyczki bez bik w zduńskiej woli pożyczki filemon advice financial pożyczki pożyczki online bez big 458 punktów bik kredyt w eurobank kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik kraków pozyczki na oświadczenie w ostrów mazowiecka w jakim banku najłatwiej wziasc kredyt kredyt bank powstancow slaskich sulechow pozyczki bez zaswiadczen z doreczeniem do domu szybkie pożyczki olsztyn wzór wyliczenia odsetek od pożyczki z zfśs pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań umowa pożyczki kto składa pcc pożyczki bocian na dowód pożyczki przez internet na dowód kredyt bank biuro maklerskie kredyt bank sa lublin ul zana 39a umowa pożyczki a pit kredyty chwilówki czebotar pożyczki wfośigw najkorzystniejsze pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank sa kursy walut pożyczki bez bik turek otrzymanie pożyczki a pcc kredyt bank sanok godziny otwarcia umorzenie pożyczki wspólnika kredyt bank oddział w piotrkowie trybunalskim pożyczki na dowód zawiercie kredyt samochodowy bez bik i krd kredyt remontowy pożyczki prywatne suwałki pożyczki bez bik na samochód kredyt bank w dębicy pożyczki na dowód kościerzyna kredyt w banku uk pożyczki dla bezrobotnych i zadłużonych szybka pozyczka do reki tczew na dowod kredyt bez bik strzelin kredyt bank wałbrzych kusocińskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczka pod zastaw auta zdunska wola w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt gotówkowy forum kwota pożyczki wolna od podatku 2006 pożyczki na dowód z komornikiem kredyt bank klodzko kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik i zabezpieczeń kredyt bank lokaty październik 2012 tani kredyt bez bik kredyt bank w krotoszynie pożyczki bez bik na dłuższy okres kredyt w banku pko bp kredyt bank królewska kraków godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki pieniężnej bez odsetek kredyty chwilówki bitwy warszawskiej getin bank kredyt samochodowy kontakt kredyt konsolidacyjny bez podpisu małżonka alior bank kredyt oddłużeniowy kredyt bank karta kredytowa oprocentowanie kredyt bank warszawa ul żytnia pozyczka pko 5000 zl kredyt bank ciołka 10 godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik big i krd kredyt bank poznań podporzadkowanie pożyczki kredyt bank oddział warszawa kondratowicza kredyt bank kondratowicza kontakt alior bank oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt na samochód bez bik bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty kredyt bank warszawa grójecka 186 pożyczki prywatne lubin pożyczki online w 15 minut kalisz pożyczki dla osób z zajęciami komorniczymi bocian pożyczki turek kredyt w banku pocztowy kredyt bank olsztyn aura kredyty chwilówki 24 serwis finansowy dobrej pożyczki kredyt bankowy jego rodzaje na jaki numer kredyt w orange kredyt bank warszawa al ken pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód kredyt bank w pszczynie pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk podwale kredyty chwilówki warszawa opinie kredyty chwilówki praca oświęcim pożyczki interes umorzenie pożyczki a kup pożyczki w domu klienta nowe miasto lubawskie kredyt bank zwycięstwa gliwice kredyty od reki od 18lat ostrowiec sw jak dostać kredyt w banku spółdzielczym kredyt w banku pekao s a pożyczki chwilówki pko kredyty bez bik białogard pożyczki chwilówki przez internet uk pożyczki chwilówka od ręki ktore banki daja kredyt zadluzonym kredyt bank kościuszki łódź pożyczki pozabankowe firmy kredyty chwilówki na dowód wrocław bocian pożyczki katowice gros pożyczki inowrocław pożyczki chwilówki kościan kredyt gotówkowy w meritum banku pożyczki dla hitlera kredyt chwilówka opole bez bik pożyczki online w 15 minut kredyt konsolidacyjny na 20 lat bez zabezpieczeń kredyt studencki porównanie banków gdzie kredyt bez bik zatrudnionych zagranica pożyczki pozabankowe gryfice pożyczki pod zastaw pabianice kredyt bank lublin narutowicza 55b kontakt kapitalizacja pożyczki kredyt bank sulechów kontakt kredyty i gwarancje bankowe dobosiewicz pdf kredyt bank iv oddział warszawa bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty pożyczki gotówkowe śląsk pożyczki na telefon opinie kredyt studencki bank bz wbk pożyczki bez bik i krd bialystok feniks pożyczki mińsk mazowiecki pożyczki chwilówki jak założyć bez biku kredyty oddłużeniowe konsolidacja kredyty chwilówki szczecin kredyt bez bik warszawa pożyczka na dowód bocian wroclaw pożyczki tanie kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki z przewłaszczeniem kredyt technologiczny banki współpracujące kredyty pozabankowe z dojazdem do domu w krosnie pozyczki pozabankowe kasa do reki idea bank kredyt online kredyt bez bik gdynia kredyt bez zaświadczeń i bik warszawa pro domo pozyczki kolobrzeg pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych kredyt bank osiedle polan pożyczki śrem kredyt gotówkowy bez bik kielce windykacja pożyczki prywatnej wartość pożyczki ewidencja księgowa udzielonej pożyczki getin bank warunki pożyczki kredyt bank w pile niespłacony kredyt w banku wydanie przedmiotu pożyczki duet pozyczka numer tel kredyt bank trzebinia pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomści w tarnobrzegu pożyczki pozabankowe dla każdego poznań kredyt bank w luboniu kredyt bez biku na oswiadczenie parabanki pożyczki bez bik praca dodatkowa rozdawanie pozyczek pomorskie arkadiusz nowakowski pożyczki kredyt bank bialobrzegi kredyt na pit w credit agricole kredyt studencki bank polskiej spółdzielczości pożyczki chwilówki od ręki kredyt bank środa wlkp kredyt bank kondratowicza 35 pozyczka chwilowka bez krdbikbig pożyczki bez bik jawor pożyczki bez zaświadczeń od 18 lat pożyczki rodzina na swoim pożyczki pod zastaw auta

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad