umowa pożyczki wzór zabezpieczenie kredyt bank busko godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki toruń grudziądzka pożyczki do domu kraków kredyt bank 2012 kredyt gotówkowy bez bik bytom kredyt bank fieldorfa pożyczki kołobrzeg księgowanie pożyczki zfśs kredyt bank 11 listopada łódź bank alior formalnosci do kredytu nowe pozyczki w domu kredyt bank bocian kredyt bez bik bank spółdzielczy pożyczki podobne do kokos ustawowe odsetki od pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki bez bik cała polska kredyt bez bik lodz pożyczki prywatne dla zadłużonych kredyt bank wrocław gliniana godziny otwarcia pożyczki chwilówki bez baz kredyt przez internet bez bik i zaswiadczen patryk raczkowski pożyczki kredyt bank minsk centrum finansowe pożyczki pozyczka z bez bik i z komornikiem lodz kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego pko bp pożyczki pod zastaw chełm kredyt pozabankowy kielce pożyczki pozabankowe świętokrzyskie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla samotnych matek aport pożyczki pożyczka na remont mieszkania jak uzasadnic pożyczki chwilówki ozorków kredyt pozabankowy lodz umarzanie pozyczek w parabankach pożyczki bez bik w brodnicy kredyt pozabankowy 10 tys łukasz formela pożyczki getin bank jastrzębie zdrój kredyty samochodowe tel pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania łódź pożyczki na otworzenie działalności gospodarczej optima pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank kluczbork godziny otwarcia kredyt bank 24 kb pożyczki chwilówki wodzisław śląski partner pożyczki opinie kredyt bank krakowskie lublin chwilówki lublin pożyczki lublin chwilówki lubelskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w euro 2013 pożyczki od osób prywatnych opole kredyt konsolidacyjny długi okres spłaty umowa pożyczki pieniędzy doc pożyczki alibaba pożyczki chwilówki gdańsk grunwaldzka firmy kredytowe pozabankowe w katowicach pożyczki unia europejska kredyt on line bez biku potrącenie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt getin bank forum alior bank forum kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki gotówkowe w domu pożyczki gotówkowe rybnik kredyt bank placówki warszawa śródmieście kredyt bank lease umowa w sprawie pożyczki mieszkaniowej kredyt konsolidacyjny ubezpieczenie kredyty mieszkaniowe dla pracujacych za granica pozyczki pozabankowe katowice bez meldunku pko bp lublin kredyt studencki kredyt gotowkowy bez big i krd pożyczki uam kredyt samochodowy deutsche bank kalkulator kredyty bez bik jelenia gora opinie o pszczułce kredyty pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń przez internet nieoprocentowane pożyczki dla pracowników capital pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki ozorków kredyt bank zgoda knf kredyt bez bik pszczyna kredyt bank rydla w jakim banku wziąć kredyt na samochód brak zdolności kredytowej kredyt prywarny z zabezpieczeniem ubezpieczenia kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa na zastępstwo certus pożyczki opinie bocian pożyczki a komornik panda kredyty kedzierzyn pożyczki bank pko kredyty chwilówki oława pożyczki kruk pożyczki pozabankowe wawa kredyt bank wydział windykacji kredyt bez bik dębica kredyty bez bik slupsk umowa pożyczki jakie opłaty łatwy kredyt konsolidacyjny pozyczki do domu inowroclaw pożyczki bez zaświadczeń i bez biku benefit pożyczki bydgoszcz bip pożyczki formularz wzory dokumentów pożyczki umowa pożyczki z przeniesieniem własności pożyczki do domu dolnośląskie pożyczki w jeden dzień umowa pożyczki w spółce jawnej pożyczki gotówkowe w holandii pożyczki bez zaświadczeń online umowa pożyczki z zastawem rejestrowym oprocentowanie efektywne pożyczki kredyt bank platforma walutowa bocian pożyczki łódź kredyt bez biku i poreczycieli look pozyczki i podobne kredyty bez bik forum kredyt dla firm idea bank forum pożyczki dla przedsiębiorczych mariusz tierling poznań pożyczki kredyt bank dluga krakow kredyt bank krasnystaw kontakt księgowanie udzielonej pożyczki z zfśs kredyt bank czestochowa godziny otwarcia szybkie pożyczki bez bik szczecin kredyt bank oddział krynica zdrój szukam pożyczki szczecin pożyczki tax care opinie kredyt bank godziny otwarcia rumia mikropożyczki na założenie firmy prywatne pożyczki w białymstoku kredyt bank lokata opinie kredyty bez biku opole pozyczki prywatne kredyt konsolidacyjny citi handlowy kredyt bez bik świebodzin wzór umowy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości skarabeusz pożyczki rzeszów kredyt bank ul wielicka godziny otwarcia ekstrakonto plus w kredyt banku opinie pożyczki rydułtowy czestochowa pozyczka pod zastaw auta szybkie pożyczki online w uk kredyt bank bez bik kredyt bank piła telefon kredyt bank ile kosztuje przelew cechy pożyczki bankowej umorzenie pożyczki pismo pożyczki na dowód od 18 lat gwarantowane pożyczki osobiste kredyt bank ekstrakonto concerto pożyczki bez bik zgierz kredyty bez bik w uk kredyt bank połączony kredyt orange jaki kod pożyczki z narodowego funduszu ochrony środowiska pozyczki na dowod bez zaswiadzczen i limitów wiekowych kredyt w banku wcześniejsza spłata rejestracja kredytu w urzędzie skarbowym bocian pożyczki a bik kredyt bank w rawie mazowieckiej pożyczki w domu klieta kołobrzeg pożyczki pozabankowe oława kredyt pocztowy na dowód pożyczki bocian tarnobrzeg kredyt mieszkaniowy bank spółdzielczy medicover kredyt bank warszawa kredyty do domu w bydgoszczy pożyczki w planie kont kredyt przez internet bez bik zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki od spółki kredyty chwilówka bielsko kredyt 2500 toruŃ kredyt ratalny banki kredyt bank luboń ewidencja pożyczki udzielonej bocian pożyczki lubań kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń alior bank prawo bankowe kredyt konsumencki pożyczki z funduszu fundacji wspomagania wsi pożyczki śrem kredyty bez bik zawiercie kredyt bank profil spokojny kredyt bank lista bezpłatnych bankomatów kredyty chwilówki brzeg kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń bez bik pożyczki mława pożyczki grochowska kredyt bez bik w skok kredyt bank logowanie do konta pożyczki nau kredyt bank w polkowicach ostatnia sesja w kredyt banku kredyt w banku zachodnim wbk kredyt konsolidacyjny santander bank kredyt bank zywiec godziny otwarcia pożyczka z żyrantem kredyt samochodowy ranking czerwiec 2012 pożyczki na dowód chorzów kredyt na dowod osobisty gdansk pozyczki atiz w miescie krotoszyn kontakt deklaracja od pożyczki pożyczki od rodziny i znajomych pismo o umorzenie kredytu z funduszu socjalnego kredyty w nordea bank pożyczki gotówkowe zadłużonych kredyt konsolidacyjny na 120 miesięcy pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości kredyt bank kłodzko godziny otwarcia potrzebna pozyczka opole alior bank kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki okres przedawnienia kredyty pozabankowe udzielam uczciwych prywatnych pozyczek kokos pożyczki forum pożyczki kronos zawiercie umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółkami kredyty chwilówki knf idea bank kredyt dla firm opinie w jakim banku najłatwiej o kredyt konsolidacyjny kredyt 15000 w jakim banku kredyt bank infolinia żagiel kredyt bank wołomin praca pożyczki na dowód słupca kredyt bank jakie bankomaty za darmo pozyczki szczecin na zaswiadczenie o zarobkach kredyt bez bik i krd zielona góra małgorzata iwańska pożyczki opinie ekspresowe pożyczki ełk szukam ekspresowej pozyczki tarnow kredyt w rachunku bieżącym bank spółdzielczy kredyt studencki pko powtarzanie roku pożyczki 30 stki pożyczki dla zadłużonych forum pożyczki na dowód mbank pożyczka dla skok kredyt bank krosno lewakowskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki bank bgż kredyt chwilowka daja bez bik kredyt bank rodzina na swoim pożyczki przez internet bez bik i krd kredyt bank oprocentowanie konta oszczędnościowego kredyt bank ul kasprzaka warszawa kredyt na mieszkanie w credit agricole porównanie pożyczki i kredytu kredyt bank ojciec chrzestny oddziały kredyt banku we wrocławiu pożyczki chwilówki elbląg kredyt bank pelplin godziny otwarcia prywatna pożyczka do ręki bez dochodu warszawa kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator bankier oprocentowanie rachunku depozytowego w kredyt banku kredyt bez bik i krd przez internet szybki kredyt bez zdolności kredytowej termin przedawnienia roszczeń z tytułu pożyczki kredyty chwilówki dla kogo pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń warszawa kredyt m1 kredyt studencki pko poręczyciel pożyczki chwilówki wągrowiec kredyt bank wizja najnowsza pożyczka bez bik kredyt bank altus katowice gdańsk pożyczki bez bik pożyczki bez bik bogatynia umowa pożyczki gotówki kredyt samochodowy w banku pożyczki oddłużeniowe bez bik potwierdzenie zapłaty pożyczki kredyt bank toruń tel pożyczki wbk kredyt bank mickiewicza spłata pożyczki w innym banku pożyczki bez bik we włocławku pożyczki typu provident warszawa słowna umowa pożyczki pożyczki długoterminowe online pożyczki z obsługą w domu klienta pożyczki z ue dla firm prywatne pozyczki lichwiarskie slask pożyczki od ręki lublin kredyty chwilówki pośrednictwo kredyty mieszkaniowe po nowym roku kredyt bank ostrow maz pożyczki w 15 minut kredyt bank karta concerto kredyt bank w rawiczu partner pożyczki piła hasła reklamowe pożyczki pożyczki zwolnione z podatku pozyczka na dlugi pod weksel pożyczki książka kredyt w uk bez historii kredytowej promocja pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki opole konto ror w kredyt banku kredyt bank matejki szczecin kredyt bank przeniesienie karty kredytowej kredyt bankowy w finansowaniu msp pożyczki do domu bocian opinie dobrej pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe bez bik i krd przez internet wanluks pożyczki pożyczki dla osób ze złą historią kredytową kredyt bez pracy kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń kredyty chwilówki zywiec ul dworcowa pożyczki przez internet bez pracy przedłużenie pożyczki w vivus kredyt samochodowy get in bank umorzenie odsetek od pożyczki przychód pożyczki ze złą historią pożyczki na procent warszawa pożyczki przez internet bez big kredyt bank warszawa plac powstańców kredyt mieszkaniowy mieszkanie na swoim kredyt bank jana pawła wesoła pożyczki okey kredyt w banku w irlandii pozyczka na umowe zlecenie pruszcz gdanski pożyczki bez bik w łodzi pożyczki system argentyński kredyt bank sa swift code gwarant pożyczki bochnia kredyt konsolidacyjny get in bank kredyty chwilówki przez internet bocian pożyczki raty urząd skarbowy zgłoszenie pożyczki kredyty i pożyczki dla bezrobotnych kredyt bank sa lubin kredyt bank poczta elektroniczna wezwanie do zapłaty umowa pożyczki wzór pożyczki online w 15 minut bez bik łukasz formela pożyczki kredyty chwilówki przez telefon kredyt bank kolegialna opodatkowanie odsetek od pożyczki od osoby fizycznej kredyt chwilówka getin bank kredyt w boś banku opinie kredyt bank druki pożyczki z dostawą do domu żyrafa pożyczki opinie kredyt bez bik ruda slaska kredyty chwilówki partner logowanie jak udzielać pożyczki najnowsze pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyt studencki 2012 opinie pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla pracowników oświaty bank santander kredyt na komornika kredyt na samochód bez bik wzór umowy pożyczki z zastawem kredyt bank żagiel adres wpłatomat kredyt banku warszawa pożyczka wieloratalna przez internet kredyt bank 4 umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bank police pożyczki bez bik łomża umowa pożyczki między pracodawcą a pracownikiem pożyczki świąteczne na dowód jak wziąć kredyt w banku zagranicznym umowa pożyczki pieniędzy podatek internetowe pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki prywatne starachowice pożyczki przez internet opinie kredyt bank w świdniku kredyty bez bik podkarpacie kredyt bank warszawa plac powstańców bezzwrotne pożyczki z up pożyczki pozabankowe legionowo szybkie pożyczki gryfice pożyczki ząbkowice śląskie szybkie pożyczki bytom kredyt bank krasnystaw pożyczki pożyczka pod zastaw nieruchomości pożyczki prywatne lubliniec pan kowalski zaciagnal kredyt w banku w wysokosci 40000 kredyt bankowy na wykup mieszkania z komornikiem bezpieczne pożyczki przez internet pożyczki dla bezrobotnych 2014 kredyt bank konto internetowe kredyt chwilowka pruszcz gdanski kredyt samochodowy jaki bank wybrać pożyczka pozabankowa do20tys udziele pożyczki prywatnie 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny toruń symulacja pożyczki gotówkowej ing pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów na weksel kredyt mieszkaniowy w jakim banku kredyt studencki warunki umorzenia umowa pożyczki krótkoterminowej prywatne pożyczki bez zastawu ogłoszenia umorzenie pożyczki pit 8c pożyczki pozabankowe lublin pożyczki prywatne radom kredyty chwilówki bez bik wrocław kredyt w banku boś kredyt bank walcz kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyty chwilówki warszawa puławska pożyczki płońsk kredyty bez bik dabrowa gornicza kredyty bez bik legionowo kredyt bank księgowanie przelewów kredyt na start idea bank opinie kruk pozyczki dla zadluzonych profit pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny pko sa umowa pożyczki pomiędzy rodzeństwem pozyczki prywatne na oswiadczenie bez bik i krd tczew bocian pożyczki zduńska wola kredyty chwilówki giszowiec odmowa zwrotu pożyczki potrącenie pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pracownika oblicz ratę pożyczki pko bp umowa pożyczki spółce wzór eurocash pozyczki poznan kredyty chwilówki toruń opinie kredyty bez bik jastrzebie zdroj pożyczki w kutnie pcc od pożyczki między firmami szukam kredytu bez biku i zaświatczeń kredyt bank wypłata z bankomatu kredyt bank warszawa centrum pożyczki na komornika santander consumer bank kredyty samochodowe wnioski o kredyt studencki pko bp pożyczki bocian szczecinek niezgłoszona umowa pożyczki kredyt w uk gdzie najlepiej pożyczki bez bik rzeszów kredyt bank działdowo kredyt samochodowy 2013 forum kredyt bank obecnie ekstra kredyty chwilowki status pożyczki kredito24 pozabankowe pożyczki pod zastaw auta kto udzieli pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyty chwilówki dla firm capital pożyczki bnp paribas kredyt samochodowy forum pożyczki krótkoterminowe kredyt bank waluty ing pożyczka samochodowa jakie banki udzielają kredytów bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator 2014 kredyt bank kto jest wlascicielem umowa pożyczki chwilówki ile kosztuje umowa notarialna pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe kluczbork kredyt 3 tysiące bez biku pożyczki bez sprawdzania zatrudnienia kredyt bank mielżyńskiego pozyczki z dojazdem do domu slupsk pożyczki prywatne łódź forum w którym banku wziąć kredyt na budowę domu kredyt bank lubin pożyczki chwilówki do domu kredyty bez komornika biku wzór umowy pożyczki z żyrantem pożyczki na samochód bez bik kredyt bank sa wałbrzych warszawa pożyczki prywatne kredyt bez bik na 24 miesiące próba wyłudzenia pożyczki kredyt bez bik lublin wzór umowy pożyczki w rodzinie kredyt konsolidacyjny bgż opinie pożyczki bez bik chojnice kredyty zamość bez bik mikropożyczki przez internet kredyt bank w warszawie godziny otwarcia kredyt bez bik dla emeryta prywatne pożyczki pod weksel kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania bez bik kredyt bez bik w toruniu pożyczki prywatne prawo kredyt bez biku dla firmy kredyt bankowy a faktoring pozyczka na umowe cywilno prawna czestochowa pożyczka bez bik i krd abis kredyt bank witomino godziny otwarcia pożyczki na dowód od 18 kredyty bankowe forum pozyczka na dowód w tesco pożyczki bez bik zabrze pożyczki bez bik zduńska wola kredyt bank logowa część pożyczki kredyt bank bankowy fundusz gwarancyjny kredyt bank biskupiec kredyt bez biku na oswiadczenie pożyczki od ręki na dowód kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pko bp kredyt bank w ostrowie wlkp nie oddaje pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny dla jst kredyt dla małej firmy bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt bank lubin pożyczki chwilówki na dowód bez zdolności kredytowe

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next Halloween word column, Tuesday, October 28, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad